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In addition, it has been used for skin conditions including acne. The plugged follicles cause whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples and acne usually appears on your face, forehead, chest, upper back, and shoulders.
The main causes of acne include excess oil production, hair follicles that are clogged by oil and dead skin cells, bacteria, and excess hormones androgens.
The areas of your body where acne most often appears are those that have the most oil sebaceous glands. Your hair follicles are connected to the oil glands, so when there is excess oil produced, the follicle becomes clogged.
The clogged follicle could cause a whitehead, which is a plugged and closed follicle or blackheads, which are open plugs filled with bacteria and oil. The bacteria and oil turn brown when exposed to the air, giving the dark appearance of the pore. Things that trigger and worsen acne include hormones, medications, diet, and stress. Androgens are a type of hormone that impacts acne.
They increase during puberty, causing the oil glands to enlarge and produce more oil sebum. Too much androgen activity can cause acne, but not enough androgens, often experienced in women, can result in acne as well.
Hormonal changes that come with pregnancy or with the use of birth control also can contribute to acne. Certain medications, including ones containing corticosteroids often used for addressing allergic reactions , testosterone, or lithium also can contribute to acne breakouts.
Your diet does play a role, but acne is more often attributed to foods high in carbs, such as breads, chips, bagels, etc. Finally, stress also can contribute to acne. There are lots of over-the-counter and prescription medications to treat acne. CBD oil is one alternative to traditional treatments and one that has minimal side effects and could potentially benefit a person in other ways as well.
Like the other organs in our body, our sebaceous glands and hair follicles contain CB1 and CB2 receptors. These receptors work to communicate with the nervous system to produce different effects, such as reduction of inflammation.
CBD oil can reduce acne because of its anti-inflammatory properties that may work to reduce the visible inflammation caused by clogged hair follicles. In addition to the anti-inflammatory function, CBD oil may also help treat acne in a number of other ways. CBD activates the endocannabinoid system, which includes anandamide , a neurological transmitter that regulates cell growth.
CBD oil also may help inhibit overactive oil production, which is one of the key causes of acne. One other benefit of CBD over prescription medications is that it only targets the problem-causing cells, leaving healthy cells alone and reducing side-effects common to many acne medications, such as dry and irritated skin. The most common way to use CBD oil for acne is in a topical form, such as a lotion or cream. You can also take a daily CBD oil supplement in pill form to help address acne and any other deeper issues, such as inflammation.
Check out our shop for more CBD oil options, including gummies, candies, and vape oil and to learn more about CBD oil and its benefit. We offer free shipping on all orders! Want it there faster? These findings confirmed unambiguously that human sebocytes have a functionally active ECS; yet, we did not possess data on the potential effect s of plant-derived cannabinoids.
It has already been applied in clinical practice without any significant side effects Sativex 16 , and numerous ongoing phase II and III trials intend to explore its further therapeutic potential Hence, within the confines of the current study, we intended to reveal the biological actions of CBD on the human sebaceous gland.
Since we lack adequate animal models 18 , we used human immortalized SZ95 sebocytes, the best available cellular system 19 , and the full-thickness human skin organ culture hSOC technique Oil Red O staining, red; nuclei: C Quantitative determination of lipid synthesis Nile Red staining. PL, polar lipids; NL, neutral lipids. F Neutral lipid synthesis Nile Red staining.
Two additional experiments yielded similar results. G Analysis of the sebaceous lipidome. We also tested its effect on actions of other lipogenic substances, which were shown previously to act through different, ECS-independent signal transduction mechanisms. Indeed, CBD effectively inhibited lipid synthesis induced by either arachidonic acid AA 21 or the combination of linoleic acid and testosterone LA-T ref.
This suggests that CBD may primarily normalize both quantitatively and qualitatively excessive and abnormal lipid production induced by acne-promoting stimuli. Besides the above lipostatic action, another desired effect of a proper anti-acne agent would be to inhibit the unwanted growth of sebocytes 2 , 27 , The solid line indicates the level of the hour vehicle control.
Viability of sebocytes following hour treatments. H Statistical analysis of the lipid production on 4 histological sections per group. Clinically, the key question is whether the above in vitro observations could be translated into significant sebostatic i.
To explore this on the preclinical level, the full-thickness hSOC technique 20 was used. This suggests that CBD may also operate as a potent sebostatic agent in vivo when tested in appropriate clinical trials.
These data suggested that CBD may exert antiinflammatory actions on human sebocytes as had already been demonstrated for CBD in several other experimental models, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Next, we dissected the molecular mechanism s that underlie the remarkable lipostatic effects of CBD.
B CBD-induced differential current i. Compounds were applied as indicated by the arrow. Fluorescence measured in relative fluorescence units [RF] was normalized to the baseline. Fluorescence expressed in RF was normalized to the baseline. C Neutral lipid synthesis Nile Red staining. D and E Neutral lipid synthesis Nile Red staining following selective gene silencing of TRPV4 channel hour treatments, started at day 3 after the transfection.
SCR, scrambled control; UC, untransfected vehicle control. Collectively, these data unambiguously confirm that CBD activates TRPV4 and that this ion channel selectively mediates its lipostatic action. Dashed line indicates the level of the hour vehicle control. C Validation of the key microarray results. To dissect the intracellular signaling pathways that underlie the above effects, we first investigated the putative participation of several kinases i. Gene set enrichment analysis GSEA 40 — 42 of the microarray results revealed that numerous mitosis and cell cycle e.
During further data processing, Biological Networks Gene Ontology BiNGO analysis 44 , 45 was also performed see Supplemental Excel files 3 and 4; the hierarchy of the different gene ontology terms enriched among the downregulated and upregulated genes is summarized in Supplemental Figures 12 and 13, respectively. Considering that administration of CBD led to opposing cellular effects i. This, again, confirmed the crucial role of TRPV4 activation in initiating the lipostatic and antiproliferative signaling cascade s of CBD.
B Quantitative determination of neutral lipid synthesis Nile Red staining; hour treatments started at day 3 after transfection. One additional experiment yielded similar results. Finally, we aimed at identifying the target molecule of CBD, which, via the upregulation of TRIB3, mediates the antiinflammatory action of the phytocannabinoid.
A previous finding that, in a murine model of acute lung injury, the G s protein—coupled A2a adenosine receptor was found to mediate the antiinflammatory actions of CBD 53 made this receptor a very probable target in our system as well. It is very important to note that, based on the literature, administration of CBD holds out the promise to target these factors as well.
Indeed, CBD was shown to inhibit proliferation of hyperproliferative keratinocytes 54 , and it was demonstrated to possess remarkable antibacterial activity Given that sebum production is the result of holocrine secretion, the amount of sebum produced is at least as dependent on the proliferative activity of basal layer sebocytes in the sebaceous gland as on the amount of lipogenesis that individual sebocytes engage in 27 , CBD has already been shown to activate e. Therefore, exploration of its exact mechanism of action appeared to be a great challenge.
Importantly, our data are in perfect agreement with the recent findings of De Petrocellis et al. GSEA 40 — 42 and BiNGO analysis 44 , 45 of the microarray results uniformly confirmed our results, arguing for complex anti-acne actions upon CBD administration, as indicated by downregulation of inflammation e. Next, we aimed at revealing the signaling pathway of the antiinflammatory actions. Although a previous study would have suggested it 63 , interestingly, TRIB3 was found not to participate in mediating the lipostatic effects of CBD in sebocytes Supplemental Figure 15C.
It is also noteworthy that TRIB3 has been identified recently as a potent phytocannabinoid target gene 64 — These results, together with our data presented here, strongly argue for the key participation of TRIB3 in mediating cellular effects of cannabinoids.
Although CBD-dependent upregulation of its several known target genes, such as activating transcription factor 4, asparagine synthetase, cation transport regulator-like 1, and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 refs. We also demonstrated that sebocytes express G s -coupled A2a receptors which have already been shown to mediate antiinflammatory actions of CBD ref. Taken together, these data strongly argue that A2a receptor might be the primary orchestrator of the antiinflammatory actions of CBD.
It should also be noted that, according to the data published by Carrier et al. Multiple human studies have already investigated the safety of CBD 13 , Furthermore, it is already in use in many countries in clinical practice without any significant side effects Sativex This is especially promising, because the currently available, most effective anti-acne agent, isotretinoin, is known to cause serious side effects 2 , 69 , These data, together with our current findings, point to a promising, cost-effective, and, likely, well-tolerated new strategy for treating acne vulgaris, the most common human skin disease.
To the best of our knowledge, the exact pharmacokinetics of CBD in the human body is unknown, and there are no data in the literature on the expected intracutaneous accumulation of Sativex-derived, systemically applied CBD. Moreover, it is very important to note that, besides the systemic application, one should keep in mind the possibility of the topical administration.
Due to its high lipophilicity, CBD is expected to preferentially enter the skin via the transfollicular route and to accumulate in the sebaceous gland 74 , Of great importance, such an accumulation has been documented already for multiple topically applied lipophilic compounds, e. More details regarding the methods are available in the Supplemental Methods. Human immortalized SZ95 sebocytes 19 were cultured as described previously 12 , For semiquantitative detection of sebaceous lipids, Oil Red O staining was applied, whereas for quantitative measurements, fluorescent Nile Red staining was applied, as detailed in our previous work 12 , Apoptotic and necrotic processes were investigated by combined DilC 1 5 and SYTOX Green staining Life Technologies , measuring the alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential and in the plasma membrane permeability, respectively, as described previously 10 , Q-PCR was performed as detailed in our previous reports 12 , As negative controls, the appropriate primary antibodies were omitted from the procedure.
As secondary antibodies, horseradish peroxidase—conjugated rabbit or mouse IgG Fc segment—specific antibodies developed in goat and sheep, respectively; Bio-Rad were used. Biopsies of intact human scalp and arm skin samples were obtained from 4 women RNAi was performed according to our optimized protocols 12 , Alterations in the gene expression were regarded as significant if a there were at least 2-fold changes in the corresponding levels; b the changes were equidirectional in all cases; and c global, corrected P values were less than 0.
Cells were then lysed cell density: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the voltage-clamp configuration were performed using an Axopatch A amplifier Molecular Devices or by using an EPC amplifier. P values of less than 0. Study subjects provided informed consent prior to their participation.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Clin Invest v. Published online Jul Find articles by Koji Sugawara. Find articles by Attila G. Find articles by Gabriella Czifra. Find articles by Jennifer Kloepper. Find articles by Emanuela Camera. Find articles by Matteo Ludovici. Find articles by Mauro Picardo. Find articles by Thomas Voets. Find articles by Christos C. Find articles by Ralf Paus. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Mar 17; Accepted Jun 5. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supplemental data. Supplemental Excel file 1. Supplemental Excel file 2. Supplemental Excel file 3. Supplemental Excel file 4. Abstract The endocannabinoid system ECS regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Introduction Acne vulgaris is the most common human skin disease, affecting quality of life of millions worldwide.
Open in a separate window. CBD decreases proliferation, but not the viability, of human sebocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. CBD exerts universal antiinflammatory actions. CBD induces outwardly rectifying membrane currents on human sebocytes. Anti-acne actions of CBD are mediated by parallel, partly independent signaling mechanisms. For details, see Discussion section.
Methods More details regarding the methods are available in the Supplemental Methods. Cell culturing, determination of intracellular lipids, investigation of the lipidome.
Determination of viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and cellular proliferation. Full-thickness hSOC and sample preparations. Supplementary Material Supplemental data: Click here to view. Supplemental Excel file 1: Supplemental Excel file 2: Supplemental Excel file 3: Supplemental Excel file 4: Footnotes Conflict of interest: Zouboulis CC, et al. What is the pathogenesis of acne?
What Does CBD in Skin Care Actually Do?
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