How much THC or CBD does your favorite cannabis product contain? Learn different ways you can estimate levels of these cannabinoids in products. Predicting Cannabis Strain Effects From THC and CBD Levels. Balanced CBD/ THC strains will be a little more euphoric than CBD-dominant strains, though. Using the THC:CBD Ratio to Predict Strain Effects. As Leafly has explored previously, CBD is able to diminish some of THC’s effects because it interacts with receptors in the brain very differently than THC does. The psychoactive effects of cannabis depend on THC’s ability to.
and THC CBD of Levels
In parallel, CBD concentration decreased from 0. CBD ratios increased from 14 in to 80 in Median THC content showed a significant increasing trend from about 6. Interestingly, the average and median THC content of handmade cigarettes, which was determined by calculating the percentage of THC in the whole tobacco-cannabis mixture, and which can be a relevant indicator when studying patterns of cannabis use, also showed significant increases in Another study performed in the Netherlands in confirmed these results with a different trend.
In the years to , they found a small but statistically significant decline in THC concentration: Thus, in the Netherlands, the THC content has remained stable during the last 10 years. This study emphasized the fact that global increases in THC levels and decreases in CBD levels are largely linked to the spread of indoor cultivation practices.
On average, cultivars from the Netherlands are twice as potent as imported products. The high THC concentrations obtained from the various cannabis varieties result from technical advances in production, such as genetic manipulations, cross-breeding, and improvements in indoor hydroponic cultivation.
As advanced techniques and more potent seeds have become more widely available, this has contributed to the steadily increasing THC concentrations in cannabis. These changes may have significant real-world clinical consequences because the chances of detrimental psychological effects seem to increase when cannabis with high concentrations of THC is consumed. THC ratio also appears to be an important factor.
Some data also suggest that the CBD: THC ratio may play a role in the risk of addiction. Synthetic cannabinoids SCs emerged in the s when researchers were first exploring the endocannabinoid system and attempting to develop new treatments for cancer pain. Around the year , SC appeared on the illicit drug market, where their prevalence had long been underestimated. Since then, their place in the market has steadily increased.
More than synthetic psychoactive substances have been identified on the illicit market. There has been a steep rise over the last 5 years with the appearance of new synthetic drugs. Since , more than SCs have been identified in various products, 24 of which appeared in Today, intra-European production is closely monitored. Indeed, each SC is replaced by newer analogs within a year or two. SC use varies a great deal between different countries and populations.
Compared with other new drugs on the market, the increase in consumption of SCs was particularly remarkable. They may also be sold as tablets, capsules, or powders. SCs have different pharmacological properties than cannabis. They also do not contain any CBD whatsoever, contrary to cannabis, where it is present in varying concentrations. Products of the same brand and sold under the same name have highly variable product compositions and concentrations.
Similarly, the pharmacokinetics depends on the administration route. In some cases, the onset of psychoactive effects and physical symptoms begins a few minutes after smoking. Some users have described feeling limited in their movements, whereas no motor deficits are objectively observed.
On average, the effects last for about 6 hours, steadily decreasing until the next day. Almost 30 years ago, Andreasson et al showed an association between cannabis use and the later emergence of schizophrenia. Despite confounding factors, sufficient proof currently exists showing that cannabis use increases the risk of psychotic disorders.
Over the last 5 decades, increasing THC concentrations have been observed in products available in many countries. Some studies have indicated that CBD may have antipsychotic properties.
One study has suggested an association between dose and response, showing that daily users of high-dose cannabis begin their first psychotic episode an average of 6 months earlier than those who had never used cannabis. Psychotic patients who continue to use cannabis had a significantly greater number of relapses than patients who had stopped using cannabis or had never used.
Based on studies examining the evolution of THC levels in cannabis over the last few decades, one hypothesis is that previous studies may have underestimated the impact of cannabis on existing psychosis. In fact, ecological proof seems to argue in favor of greater psychosis risk among youths who have recently been exposed to high-dose cannabis than in former generations exposed to lower THC doses. Such an analysis, however, has yet to be performed. It is too soon to confirm this hypothesis.
Current clinical data are insufficient to justify prevention measures concerning cannabis use or restriction of highly concentrated varieties. Numerous complications have been observed in SC users. Anxious symptoms, such as ruminations, anxiety, and panic attacks, are often seen following SC use.
Sleep disorders, hyperactivity, agitation, and irritability have also been reported. Acute intoxication may be associated with cognitive disorders such as short-term memory loss. There have also been cases of paranoia, flashbacks, and suicidal ideation. Although SCs have a similar mechanism of action to THC, the different pharmacological properties, such as higher affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, higher efficacy, as well as the absence of CBD, result in different physiological and toxicological effects, especially concerning its pro-psychotic effects.
The psychotogenic effects of SC are increasingly alarming, with numerous reports of individuals who become psychotic after SC use. Delirious symptoms, acoustico-verbal hallucinations, and dissociative elements have all been described in individuals without a history of psychosis.
SCs are potentially addictogenic because these substances can increase dopamine secretion within the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area. Intense and severe cravings have also been reported. An increasing number of nonfatal intoxications, as well as deaths, after presentation to the emergency room or in consultation have been reported, especially in young people. THC is the psychoactive principle of cannabis, inducing the cannabis inebriation sought by many users.
Its addictive potential and negative consequences are now well known. CBD seems not to induce euphoria and seems to have antipsychotic, anxiolytic, antiepileptic, and anti-inflammatory properties. According to an evaluation in by the Institute of Medicine in the United States on cannabis as a medication, the future of medical cannabis resides in isolating its cannabinoid components and their synthetic derivatives. Various forms of cannabis have been studied to ascertain the therapeutic properties of cannabis.
It has been approved in several countries Canada, Europe , but not in the United States, as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of spastic pain in patients with neurological disorders. A meta-analysis reviewed randomized clinical trials worldwide of medical cannabis and cannabinoids from through The most frequently studied cannabinoid forms were medications produced by pharmaceutical companies: This study included only two trials using plant-based cannabis smoked and vaped.
The same level of proof was shown for nabiximols or smoked THC in the treatment of chronic cancer pain and neuropathic pain. This meta-analysis showed that CBD was not significantly more efficient in treating psychosis than a usual antipsychotic, such as amisulpiride, or depression compared with nabiximols. Finally, one very small crossover trial with six patients was not able to detect an effect of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure.
A systematic review by the American Academy of Neurology examined publications from through November concerning the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, movement disorders, and epilepsy. The other formulations seemed to be effective in these indications, but with lower levels of proof.
Proof was insufficient to conclude as to the efficacy of smoked cannabis. In other neurological indications, such as Huntington disease and Tourette syndrome, proofs were judged insufficient. Cannabinoids would seem to have some therapeutic interest in the following indications: However, there are currently insufficient levels of proof. Indeed, a Cochrane review from , for example, concluded that there were insufficient levels of proof for cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy.
They remain the subject of preclinical and human research. In animal studies, CBD has shown significant antiepileptic activity, reducing seizure severity. Recent studies in young patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant epilepsy have shown that CBD may have a specific indication in these forms. Due to its implications in the reward system, endocannabinoid signaling represents a potential therapeutic target in treating addictions.
The results from randomized, controlled trials suggest that CB1 receptor agonists such as dronabinol and nabiximols may be effective in treating cannabis withdrawal. Dronabinol may also decrease opioid withdrawal symptoms. Rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1 receptors, has shown promising effects in tobacco cessation; it also causes adverse psychiatric effects. Few clinical trials have examined the effect of cannabinoids in treating alcohol-use disorder; those examining rimonabant have shown negative results.
Fourteen studies were found, nine in animals and five in humans. Some preclinical studies suggest that CBD may have some therapeutic properties in treating opioid-, cocaine-, and psychostimulant-use disorders. Some preliminary data suggest that it could be advantageous in treating cannabis and tobacco-use disorder in humans.
One randomized, double -blind clinical trial compared the use of CBD versus amisulpride for 4 weeks in, respectively, 20 and 19 patients with psychosis. A potential advantage for CBD is its milder side effects: The understanding of the relationship between sleep and cannabinoids has been obscured by significant methodological differences resulting in mitigated results.
The results from the literature seem to favor a beneficial effect of acute cannabis intoxication on sleep. On the other hand, regular cannabis use seems to have a negative impact on sleep quality. Different cannabinoids seem to have a differential impact on sleep. One study has suggested a therapeutic potential for dronabinol and nabilone on sleep disorders and nightmares. Thus, there is preclinical evidence and some clinical evidence for therapeutic properties regarding a number of diseases.
However, larger controlled clinical trials are needed to show efficacy and safety for each disorder. Cannabis use and its negative consequences have increased over the last several years in parallel with increasing cannabis potencies.
SCs seem to be particularly popular among cannabis users. This emerging market represents a specific public health problem in light of the severe complications in relation to their use.
What the risks are of developing a psychotic disorder after SC administration remains a fundamental question. This is an emerging area of research in which more robust epidemiological studies must be developed. These must provide detailed information concerning not only the quantity and the frequency of cannabis use, but also, and more importantly, the type of cannabis used.
CBD ratio will strongly affect your experience. Strain effects will also depend on the presence of other compounds, like terpenes. CBD ratio is a huge factor in how a strain will affect you. Can we anticipate any general effects from the THC: When people take pure CBD, even at very high doses, it is well tolerated and produces no obvious intoxicating effects. Cannabis connoisseurs will be well aware of the general differences between the effects of THC-dominant vs.
Novice cannabis consumers, by contrast, should start by understanding the basic differences between balanced vs. THC-dominant strains before worrying about further subtleties or experimenting with the more potent cannabis products. Balanced strains like Harlequin or Cannatonic will still get you high, but your experience will be noticeably different compared to THC-dominant strains.
Based on what we know from scientific studies, the effects of balanced strains may differ from THC-dominant strains in the ways listed below. The presence or absence of other compounds will likely influence the effects of specific strains and products. The list below should be viewed as a basic introduction to plausible differences between balanced and THC-dominant strains.
It should not be considered a definitive guide to how every single strain will affect you. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that CBD can have anti-anxiety effects. Studies in humans have observed that CBD can diminish the anxiety provoked by a stressful situation like public speaking or the paranoia and cognitive impairment provoked by THC administration.
Laboratory studies in animals also generally find that CBD reduces behavioral measures of anxiety. There seem to be two important reasons for this.
For some people, this includes anxiety or paranoia especially with high doses of THC. Second, CBD can exert direct anti-anxiety effects through its influence on other receptor systems in the brain. The serotonin system is a common target of some prescription drugs commonly used to treat anxiety. A hallmark of the THC-induced high, especially at higher doses, is short-term memory impairment.
For example, a study examined the effects of smoked cannabis on memory. Intriguingly, this study assessed regular cannabis consumers and allowed them to ingest their own cannabis.
On average, the THC content was similar in both groups, but the cannabis consumed by those smoking balanced strains also contained CBD. Consumption of only THC resulted in memory impairments, as expected. Some may be diminished while some are not. The specific effects will depend on the precise THC: CBD ratio, method of consumption , and presence of other compounds, such as terpenes. It is well established that THC can have sedative effects, and small studies in humans have found that CBD can counteract them.
Animal studies are generally consistent with these findings: Both human and animal studies indicate that pure CBD, given alone or in combination with pure THC, has anti-sedative effects at low-to-moderate doses.
Small human studies where people have been given very large doses of pure CBD have been mixed, with some finding sedative effects and others finding no effects on wakefulness. Consuming a commercial strain should be equivalent to receiving a low dose of CBD, so you may be less likely to experience sedation by consuming a balanced strain that contains both THC and CBD.
This is also what we expect based on our knowledge that activating the CB1 receptor promotes sleep. This could be caused by compounds other than CBD, such as the terpene myrcene , which can be present at significant levels in certain strains. So, while knowing the THC: CBD can tell you a lot about the potential effects of different strains, it may not always be a surefire guide to predicting exactly how a strain will affect you.
Hunger has long been one of the most famous side effects of cannabis consumption. In laboratory studies in rodents, increased feeding is observed once the rodents are given THC or other compounds that activate CB1 receptors. If you prevent THC from activating these receptors, you do not see increased feeding. Animal studies have also investigated how CBD affects feeding behavior.
Obviously your Science is Fugged up. CBD ability to grow new brain cells in the hippocampus preventing alzheimers. Clearly means that the sedating effect is the brain draining energy from itself to focus it on new cells.
Why THC Gets You High and CBD Doesn’t
We'll take a look at two compounds, CBD vs THC, and compare them on a number of different levels. Both may have benefits, but they differ despite having . Some experts suggest that a combination of THC and CBD is the ideal way to Cannabis plants containing small amounts of CBD and high levels of THC result . The results showed an 8% increase in average THC levels during that period. In parallel, CBD concentration decreased from % to less than %.