This list will help you learn about important days of both National and International i.e. India and World. In addition, the reason behind these days so this will help. The following is a list of national and international statistical services. Contents. 1 Central national statistical services. Africa; Americas; Asia; List Of Important Days - National & International. 21 जनवरी को अपराह्न बजे. - Vishnu Priya. January: January 1 - Global Family Day, Army.
International National &
To address documentation, the IBPGR encourages the establishment of international data bases for various crops. These would logically be handled by base collection holders.
Several international data bases are being developed. Through the European Cooperative Program for Conservation and Exchange of Crop Genetic Resources, several regional European data bases have been set up see table below.
Some of these regional data bases have spread beyond the confines of Europe and may eventually become part of international data bases. The extensive documentation system of the International Rice Research Institute may serve as an example of other international crop data bases under consideration. Maize germplasm in major Latin American germplasm banks. Later, query software will be produced to facilitate the management of this large data base. Inventory of samples of wild Arachis spp.
Particular emphasis on filling gaps in records received earlier from germplasm banks in 15 countries. Data base on wild species closely related to wheat.
Data base will complement the Vicia section of Mediterranean forages system. Records of Citrus spp. Further development of the system includes information on morphology and disease resistance. Data base on Cucumis germplasm. Data base for cultivated Brassica germplasm maintained in European collections. International Musa Conservation Network. Development of a Musa data base to serve the network. Worldwide rice germplasm conservation and dissemination services with special emphasis on tropical cultivars and wild species of Asia.
Also serves as coordinator of the International Rice Testing Program. Data base includes germplasm, international nurseries, and breeding records, all interlinked and freely distributed. Germplasm data base includes pass port, characterization, and evaluation data.
Seed storage, rejuvenation, viability monitoring, and distribution are computer managed. Also develops and supplies software for personal computers for national germplasm use. International Rice Research Institute. The national germplasm banks of Italy and Germany then, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Nordic germplasm bank subsequently emerged.
An original concept of the FAO Panel of Experts on Plant Exploration and Introduction was to establish regional exploration centers within the major regions of diversity of major crops. A regional approach makes botanical sense and was thought to be more effective because many centers of diversity are located in the less developed regions of the world that could not devote major resources to germplasm banks. Attempts to develop regional centers in the areas of major crop diversity were not successful Baum, It became clear that the essential operating unit was the national program.
The basic function of IBPGR was to promote an international network of genetic resources centers in cooperation with national programs, donor nations and institutions, and individual scientists International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, c. It was to act as a catalyst for stimulating the action needed to sustain a viable network of institutions for conserving plant genetic resources and to provide leadership and advice on establishing and managing germplasm collections.
IBPGR activities included exploring and collecting important plant species; encouraging development of facilities for preserving and using collections; training germplasm specialists and technicians; fostering establishment of base collections of important crops; establishing operational standards for germplasm banks; creating a data and information center; publishing an annual status report on germplasm conservation activities; and assisting in the development of networks to facilitate the documentation and exchange of germplasm materials.
The ultimate goal is a globally integrated genetic resources system. Between and , an estimated , samples of various crops were added to germplasm collections through multi-institutional collaborations, and field collection activities were carried out in more than countries.
The criteria for selecting crops and regions included the immediate or potential danger of genetic erosion, the economic and social importance of the crops, the requirements of plant breeding, and the availability of existing collections. IBPGR policies today stress the need to analyze the available information on species distribution and collection holdings and has moved to more systematic programs based on effective sampling of gaps in collections or rescuing threatened germplasm van Sloten, b.
IBPGR has given increased priority to strategic research on genetic resources and to raising the scientific standards applied in germplasm work worldwide. The FAO commission was to. Monitor the international arrangements referred to in Article 7 that relate to the strengthening of international activities and development of an integrated global system;.
Recommend measures that would ensure that the global system would be comprehensive and have an efficient operation; and. Review matters relating to the policy, programs, and activities of FAO in the field of plant genetic resources and to give advice to FAO. Preparations include development of a report on the state of the world's plant genetic resources.
This will be derived from individual country studies, regional reports, and a survey of national programs that is being conducted and analyzed in cooperation with IBPGR.
From this, FAO hopes a plan of action will emerge to guide future plant genetic resources activities. Most available genetic resources are part of active collections. These have been assembled to serve the ongoing breeding and introduction programs of several hundred institutions throughout the world. Of the estimated 2. To safeguard collections held outside the developed world and outside the IARCs, and to formalize worldwide responsibility, IBPGR proposed and helped to set up a network of institutions holding base collections of particular crops.
As of about 50 institutions had voluntarily entered into an agreement to accept such responsibilities International. Board for Plant Genetic Resources, The intent is to duplicate each accession in at least two base collections. A good start has been made , but many minor crops are not yet stored in base collections; and many duplicate base collections have yet to be identified or stored. Several institutes and programs have accepted responsibility for maintaining selected vegetatively propagated crops as field or greenhouse collections Table Regeneration is a major problem for seed collections, and few base collection holders have the capacity to do it.
Another problem is that environmental specificity often requires multiplication under conditions not available in the country of the base collection holder. Furthermore, there are problems of limited support, inadequately trained staff, and poor management.
Since the important materials are in long-term storage, however, there is still an opportunity to organize regeneration networks. Chapter 5 contains a more detailed discussion of regeneration. Documentation is another problem.
Accessions entered in a base collection should be accompanied by adequate passport data and, if possible, characterization data see Chapter 8. This is often not the case, limiting the usefulness of such accessions to breeders. IBPGR has spent much effort toward standardizing data collection and developing descriptor lists for various crops. The development of appropriate information systems specially designed for use in genetic collections and for facilitating the exchange of information between germplasm banks and with users and collection managers is only slowly improving.
The IARCs form the backbone of the international network. They are responsible for collecting, distributing, and conserving the genetic resources of many specific food crops. It now holds the major collections of the world's landraces of Indica and Javanica rices and is still expanding, and it has given added emphasis to wild rice species.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel a. International Board of Plant Genetic Resources. These institutes have direct linkages, through their plant breeding programs and germplasm collections, to national agricultural research systems, and they serve as effective centers of germplasm exchange.
There is no systemwide genetic resources program formally coordinated within the CGIAR that addresses the complete range of plant genetic resources issues. However, the IARCs have organized an intercenter plant genetic resources working group to address issues of common interest. The institutional problems largely stem from asymmetry in the availability and, more important, the used of genetic resources in plant breeding and biotechnology in developed and developing countries.
Although, with few exceptions, the free exchange of genetic resources is taking place, there is an underlying uneasiness that increased involvement of the private sector in plant breeding may affect this free exchange, if not now, possibly in the future see Chapter The most important part of the solution is to improve the position of developing countries in plant breeding and seed production. Much of the earlier scholarship and fellowship support to train plant breeders and other agricultural scientists is no longer available.
Some progress is being made through the activities of the CGIAR in cooperation with national programs. Much more needs to be done, however,. It is generally becoming appreciated that no country is self-sufficient in genetic resources and that all countries can benefit from the free flow of germplasm, especially if there is a strong capability in place to use it Keystone Center, , , The standards of management and the facilities that house the collections are also of concern. In response to criticism that genetic erosion was taking place in numerous germplasm banks because of inadequate conversation practices, IBPGR initiated a review of standards.
Those germplasm banks that did not meet these standards were encouraged to make the necessary improvements, and some have done so International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, a. Much has been achieved in collection efforts, training, the establishment of germplasm banks especially in developing countries , documentation, and research support. However, the funding available for genetic resources activities at both the national and international level does not reflect the substantially increased public and political awareness of the importance of genetic resources Keystone Center, , Funds from most other international sources have been smaller and, the debates of recent years notwithstanding, have not provided the substantial support that is needed.
However, even within the CGIAR system, there is much variability in the emphasis on and quality of germplasm resource endeavors. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in , gave the biodiversity issue greater visibility and a higher place on the international political agenda. A draft Convention on Biological Diversity has received wide support.
While vague and open ended in its general recommendations, the convention's message is clear: The need for substantial additional and sustainable funding by the international community is acknowledged. The convention makes no specific recommendations about the level of funding and its governance or about how policies, strategies, program priorities, and eligibility criteria are to be established. These issues will be subject. Plant genetic resources relevant to agriculture are only part of overall biodiversity.
In dealing with plant genetic resources, it is to be expected that existing structures and organizations will be taken into account. While still inadequate for reasons indicated in this chapter, a basic global structure is in place for plant genetic resources. It includes the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, which provides an intergovernmental platform for policies and oversight; the IBPGR, which coordinates and provides technical support at the program level; various regional programs; and ultimately international and national plant genetic resources programs.
International cooperation in this structure is well established and accepted as the norm by most participating institutions, with the apparent emphasis in the draft convention on national sovereignty over indigenous plant genetic resources as a basic principle.
Various scenarios can be envisaged for the further development of international collaboration in germplasm conservation and use. These include a continued emphasis on national programs, Internationalization through CGIAR, internationalization through FAO, and internationalization through a new consortium of institutions. Considerable progress has been made at many levels of germplasm conservation and use since An increased awareness of environmental issues and the need to conserve nature in general benefit genetic resources conservation.
The primary responsibilities, however, rest with national germplasm banks and the willingness of national governments to make available the resources necessary for crop germplasm conservation or a national genetic resources conservation strategy. A major problem with this approach is that a significant burden rests on developing countries in regions with major plant diversity. The need for development and the scarcity of resources make it unlikely that such countries will be able to assume this burden.
Genetic resources issues are attracting considerable political and public attention see Chapter However, genetic erosion continues to take place inside and outside germplasm banks, and genetic resources cannot be saved by political rhetoric. Only a few developing countries have sound genetic resources programs, other than the. This situation is unlikely to change significantly unless substantial and permanent international funding is made available to assist developing countries in financing their germplasm banks, which were largely built with foreign assistance.
In the long term, a global system that is able to coordinate and foster activities from in situ conservation to collection, evaluation, storage, distribution, and use would be in the interest of all nations. As the principal users and beneficiaries of conserved germplasm, national programs should have a significant role in this global effort. Although much is being achieved through CGIAR, its programs cover only a limited number of food crops and forages.
There is limited coordination among the various commodity-oriented centers and in their relationship to IBPGR. CGIAR could strengthen the genetic resources work of those centers, inasmuch as they already have an international working base, essential facilities, and trained staff; however, this will require additional funding and improved coordination.
Most of the commodity-oriented IARCs are located in or near the major centers of species diversity for a large number of the world's food crops. Their present mandate for genetic resources covering specific crops could be extended to include wider regions. Although national germplasm banks currently cooperate with the genetic resources programs of the IARCs for individual crops, in an expanded program, the IARCs could actively promote and support both regional and national conservation programs.
This would, however, broaden their responsibilities beyond breeding for specific crops. It would require a systemwide program that would set objectives and priorities independent from those of the individual crop research programs of the various IARCs. Such a program could be strengthened further by establishing within the overall budget of CGIAR a separate item for the genetic resources programs distributed over the IARCs. Regional committees and an overall advisory group could be devised to satisfy technical and national interests.
This would have consequences for the role of the IBPGR, which would require consideration and proper linkages to such activities at other centers, and for large areas of the world not served by IARCs. The IARCs are not staffed to assume these tasks at present, however, and some may have little interest in pursuing them, even if funding were made available Hawkes, This concept implies international responsibility for genetic resources, which is further heightened by the fact that important centers of genetic diversity are located in the less developed and poorer regions of the world.
The framework of the undertaking includes the following:. An international forum the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources established at the FAO conference that offers an opportunity for countries to discuss issues related to plant resources; and.
A financial mechanism the International Fund for Plant Genetic Resources through which contributions are received and applied toward conserving and using plant genetic resources.
The activities of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources are directed toward the further refinement and implementation of the intent of the undertaking to strengthen the preservation, use, and availability of germplasm.
It also addresses issues related to, for example, the establishment of a legal network of base collections, an international fund, and in situ conservation. There is an overlap between the aims of IBPGR and the stated objectives of the FAO commission, as there are among many agencies working in the area of genetic resources. A major proposal of the commission has been the establishment of an international fund to finance genetic resources activities as well as activities in plant breeding and seed production in developing countries.
The fund's specific objectives and the types of activities to be supported have yet to be defined. Many efforts related to the conservation of genetic resources, biodiversity, and the environment in general are under way. Many of them could be merged into a new structure, but efforts to do so have not progressed substantially. Other plant conservation activities are usually undertaken by different. Food crop and related species are one part of the total biological diversity. The species covered under the current efforts of FAO, the IARCs, and national programs must be expanded to perennial tree crops and other woody species of the tropics, many of which are of great value in sustainable agriculture systems and for improving the quality of life poor people in rural areas.
Furthermore, although nature conservation efforts have generally focused on in ex situ methods and genetic resources programs have focused on situ methods, in situ and ex situ technologies need to be more broadly applied in all genetic resources conservation programs. A properly structured and adequately funded organization could eliminate some of the institutional isolation and help to bring about a more holistic approach to the conservation of germplasm resources.
The world scientific and technical community has put in place the beginning of a functional network of both national and international genetic resources programs that are capable of safeguarding germplasm for the future. Present knowledge and rapid developments in a number of fields related to genetic conservation, including modern biotechnologies, provide a good basis for rational and selective conservation.
Adequate operational funding remains the bottleneck. Other problems still exist at the geopolitical level, however. Although the debate on the legal and effective ownership continues, genetic erosion also continues to take place, notably in developing countries, where most of the world's untapped genetic resources exist.
It is in the interest of world agriculture that countries in regions with major genetic diversity be provided with the means to participate more fully in genetic resources conservation and use of biological resources.
International responsibility for conserving, managing, and using genetic resources must be translated into a workable form of funding within a coherent framework that satisfies the basic principles of the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
The options described are complementary. Any strategy should build on the existing framework and activities, stressing national involvement. A major criticism of the CGIAR has been that it has no formal legal basis for action among governments.
An adequate and appropriate funding mechanism must be established to support national and international conservation, management, and use of genetic resources. Various funding mechanisms have been suggested, ranging from individual donations by interested countries to donations determined by specific criteria see Chapter International dialogue on the issue has yet to lead to a fully acceptable system.
However, a consensus has recently emerged on establishing a global plant genetic resources initiative with a call for a trust fund that would be used to foster growth of local, national, regional, and global programs Keystone Center, Developed countries can afford, if they so desire, to maintain their own national germplasm banks in association with active breeding programs.
However, external funding is needed to support the national germplasm banks, active collections, and international programs that serve developing countries. Support to national programs should be selective and based on such criteria as the availability of important genetic diversity and the specific interest and long-term commitment of the concerned government.
On that assumption, only about 30 to 40 base collection germplasm banks worldwide would be needed to safeguard genetic resources. When a germplasm banks has an efficient design and cost-effective equipment, the operating cost, excluding regeneration, is modest.
Chang, personal communication, June Increased collaboration and pooling of existing resources are essential to implementing new international efforts in the face of dwindling resources, both financial and biological. This anchor volume to the series Managing Global Genetic Resources examines the structure that underlies efforts to preserve genetic material, including the worldwide network of genetic collections; the role of biotechnology; and a host of issues that surround management and use.
Among the topics explored are in situ versus ex situ conservation, management of very large collections of genetic material, problems of quarantine, the controversy over ownership or copyright of genetic material, and more. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Chapter: National and International Programs. Looking for other ways to read this? Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies. The National Academies Press. Page Share Cite. Why are National Programs Necessary?
The Importance of Exchange. Participants in National Programs. Status of National and Regional Programs. CGN, Netherlands Prunus spp.
Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia. Latin America and the Caribbean. Food and Agriculture Organization. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
European Association for Research on Plant Breeding. University of Southampton, United Kingdom ecogeographical data base for Vicia faba, Vicia sativa , and their relatives in Vicia subgenus Vicia.
International Rice Research Institute IRRI , Philippines Worldwide rice germplasm conservation and dissemination services with special emphasis on tropical cultivars and wild species of Asia. The FAO commission was to Monitor the international arrangements referred to in Article 7 that relate to the strengthening of international activities and development of an integrated global system; Recommend measures that would ensure that the global system would be comprehensive and have an efficient operation; and Review matters relating to the policy, programs, and activities of FAO in the field of plant genetic resources and to give advice to FAO.
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Read chapter National and International Programs: This anchor volume to the series Managing Global Genetic Resources examines the structure that under. If you are interested in a particular country, you should use national poverty lines which measures across countries, you should use international poverty lines. This new English-language degree program at the University of Potsdam is currently unique in Germany, and it offers you the exceptional.