Pure and Organic CBD & and Hemp Products

Effective medicine provided by mother nature

  • Powerful relaxant

  • Strong painkiller

  • Stress reduction
  • Energy booster

Why CBD?

More and more renowned scientists worldwide publish their researches on the favorable impact of CBD on the human body. Not only does this natural compound deal with physical symptoms, but also it helps with emotional disorders. Distinctly positive results with no side effects make CBD products nothing but a phenomenal success.

This organic product helps cope with:

  • Tight muscles
  • Joint pain
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep disorder

Range of Products

We have created a range of products so you can pick the most convenient ones depending on your needs and likes.

CBD Capsules Morning/Day/Night:

CBD Capsules

These capsules increase the energy level as you fight stress and sleep disorder. Only 1-2 capsules every day with your supplements will help you address fatigue and anxiety and improve your overall state of health.

Order Now

CBD Tincture

CBD Tincture

No more muscle tension, joints inflammation and backache with this easy-to-use dropper. Combined with coconut oil, CBD Tincture purifies the body and relieves pain. And the bottle is of such a convenient size that you can always take it with you.

Order Now

Pure CBD Freeze

Pure CBD Freeze

Even the most excruciating pain can be dealt with the help of this effective natural CBD-freeze. Once applied on the skin, this product will localize the pain without ever getting into the bloodstream.

Order Now

Pure CBD Lotion

Pure CBD Lotion

This lotion offers you multiple advantages. First, it moisturizes the skin to make elastic. And second, it takes care of the inflammation and pain. Coconut oil and Shia butter is extremely beneficial for the health and beauty of your skin.

Order Now

CBD is Non-Psychoactive

M. Linares Ila P.



  • M. Linares Ila P.
  • Early interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults: a systematic literature review
  • Ila M. P. Linares · Francisco S. Guimaraes; Alan Eckeli; Ana C. S. Crippa Clarissa Trzesniak; Ila M Linares; Érica R Coimbra; Alexandre Veriano Júnior. 1 Research Projects at FAPESP. graduation at Formação de Psicologo from Universidade Federal de São Carlos (), graduation at Bacharelado em. Dec 3, Mateus M. Bergamaschi,1,2,3,* Regina H. C. Queiroz,2,3 Marcos H. N. Chagas,1, 3 Ila M. P. Linares,1,3 Kátia C. Arrais,1,3 Danielle C. G. de.

    M. Linares Ila P.

    Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: J Med Internet Res. Debriefing with brief group psychotherapy in a homogenous group of non-injured victims of a terrorist attack: Brief Treat Crisis Interv. Emergency department predictors of posttraumatic stress reduction for trauma-exposed individuals with and without an early intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. Interactive effects of memory structuring and gender in preventing posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    J Nerv Ment Dis. A study of the protective function of acute morphine administration on subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Group counseling for mothers after emergency cesarean section: Javidi H, Yadollahie M. Victims of traffic accidents: Incidence and prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Trial of interpersonal counselling after major physical trauma. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. Collaborative interventions for physically injured trauma survivors: The role of peritraumatic dissociation and gender in the association between trauma and mental health in a Palestinian community sample. Facilitation of contextual fear memory extinction and anti-anxiogenic effects of AM and cannabidiol in conditioned rats.

    Offspring psychological and biological correlates of parental posttraumatic stress: A review on the evidence of transgenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder vulnerability. The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories.

    Efficacy of oxytocin administration early after psychotrauma in preventing the development of PTSD: Morphine use after combat injury in Iraq and post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med. Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid TPOP: Docosahexaenoic acid for selective prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder among severely injured patients: Internet-based prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms in injured trauma patients: Early emotional trauma in alcohol-dependent men: The authors have no conflict of interest related to the topic of this article.

    The funding agency had no role in the study design or in the decision to submit the paper for publication. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal.

    Abstract Background Secondary interventions are implemented within a short interval following the occurrence of traumatic events with the purpose of preventing the onset of PTSD. Results Psychological measures used in the studies lack homogeneity regarding the type of intervention and the assessment of intervention outcomes. Discussion Future trials should be focused on determining the best interventions for the secondary prevention of PTSD.

    Results and discussion Table 1 presents the clinical and demographic data of the participants included in the 29 articles reviewed, whereas Table 2 describes the methodological aspects of the studies. Psychological interventions We considered as psychological interventions those approaches that were not based on the administration of pharmacological substances.

    Debriefing Four articles described the use of interventions based on a techniques know as debriefing 7 , 11 , 25 , Other types of psychological intervention Thirteen studies used different types of intervention including, for example, video-based interventions, counseling, and self help programs e.

    Pharmacological interventions As shown in Table 2 , drugs used in the selected studies included propranolol, escitalopram, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid, hydrocortisone, and morphine.

    Other relevant aspects In respect to the sample size, we highlight the discrepancy in the number of participants across the studies. Conclusion The main difficulty in the analysis of the 29 articles included in this review rose from the significant methodological variations across the studies, as discussed above.

    August 24, ; Accepted: How to cite this article. Decreased trauma symptoms, low relative risk of depression, low relative risk of stress, and low feelings of self-blame. Patients reported significantly less frequent intrusive, arousal, and total PTSD symptoms than controls.

    Level of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic symptoms and prevalence of psychiatric disorders did not differ. Dissociation at the time at which treatment starts may indicate poorer response to early intervention.

    Those with reduced dissociation at the start of treatment benefited most from early treatment. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 and 12 weeks post injury. Combined genetic variants may serve to predict those most at risk for developing PTSD following trauma. Psychotherapeutic intervention may mitigate this risk. Brief cognitive-behavioral intervention caused changes in perceptions of self and changes in trauma-related symptom.

    Morphine administered in the initial 48 hours was apparently more protective than the dose administered over the initial week. Hydrocortisone recipients reported fewer PTSD and depression symptoms than placebo recipients. Non significant trend for propranolol group CAPS scores did not differ in the propranolol and placebo groups. None of the study drugs showed a significant benefit over placebo on depressive or post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Significant reduction in CAPS scores over the course of treatment in both the escitalopram and placebo groups. Among the five trials using pharmacological interventions, only one used a single dose of the test medication On average, test medications were administered for seven days in the remaining studies. Two articles reported results compatible with a lower occurrence of PTSD and related symptoms 12, These results were based mainly on scales applied after the intervention and at follow-up assessments.

    In the studies that found no statistically significant effects of pharmacological interventions in the prevention of PTSD, the authors described variables that may have interfered in their results, such as poor adherence to treatment, and suggest that it may be preferable to recruit individuals at increased risk of developing PTSD, such as individuals with high stress levels The article by Bryant et al.

    Another study reported that, despite their weak results, propranolol may be useful in the prevention of PTSD because the results of psychophysiological tests suggest that the drug reduces the arousal elicited by exposure to stimuli resembling the traumatic event In addition to the results described above, methodological aspects including sample size, gender and age of participants, type of trauma, assessment scales, randomization procedures, intervention starting time, and follow-up duration also deserve attention, as they can have a direct impact on the results obtained.

    In respect to the sample size, we highlight the discrepancy in the number of participants across the studies. Some authors have underscored the need for further investigations involving larger samples in order to confirm the data obtained to date 14,22, Regarding the gender of participants, two of the articles reviewed had discrepancies in the number of female and male participants 20, Both studies included a higher number of men in the groups of patients undergoing the intervention compared to the other groups.

    It should also be noted that, in some studies, samples were formed exclusively by women 13,16,17,23,25,32 or men Although the authors make no mention to the discrepancies in the numbers of male and female participants, evidence points to a higher vulnerability to PTSD in females Therefore, studies with unbalanced gender distributions may not be as representative as studies with gender-balanced samples in what concerns the prevalence of the disorder.

    This can be, however, a limitation that is difficult to overcome in populations that are more vulnerable to certain types of trauma and with a high predominance of one gender, as in the case of soldiers mainly men or victims of sexual abuse mainly women. Only one of the articles reviewed did not inform the mean age of participants 8. This is highly relevant because, although the onset of PTSD may occur at any age, it is more common in young adults since they are more prone to have the type of experiences that trigger the disorder Still in respect to the age of study participants, there was less homogeneity in the data presented by some authors 7,17, These articles do not discuss the age discrepancies in their samples, as well as the possible influence of this factor on their results.

    From the 29 articles reviewed, four had no uniform samples in terms of the type of trauma experienced, that is, these studies assessed more than one type of trauma 17,18,22, There is evidence in the literature of correlations between the type of trauma experienced and gender-related vulnerability In this sense, variations in the types of trauma assessed in a same study can be seen as a limitation that hinders the reproducibility of its results.

    Despite that, there was no standard in what concerns the instruments used in the articles reviewed. In general, the studies included scales to assess symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    The lack of homogeneity in the types of instruments used in the studies also hampers the comparison of results available to date, as well as the generalization of findings. The randomization and blinding strategies used in the trials were also examined in this review.

    Only one of the articles included informed that the study sample had not been randomized In respect to the study design, only two articles did not describe the inclusion of comparison groups 25, The remaining articles included one or more comparison groups. Still regarding the study design, the trial by Bryant et al. The time between the occurrence of the trauma and the beginning of the intervention varied greatly across studies, from 6 hours 31 to 10 weeks 9.

    It has been argued that the shorter the interval between the traumatic event and the beginning of the intervention, the more likely is the blockade of the consolidation of aversive memories 17 with a consequent reduction in the possible negative emotional consequences of the trauma. Regarding follow-up assessments, all the studies reviewed included this type of analysis; however, the frequency and the interval between assessments varied.

    Some limitations related to follow-up assessments were pointed in the studies reviewed, such as excessively short intervals between assessments 17 and poor treatment adherence by participants during long follow-up periods Design, analysis, and metaanalysis.

    Cambridge University Press; A magnetic resonance imaging study of cortical thickness in animal phobia. Anxiety sensitivity correlates with two indices of right anterior insula structure in specific animal phobia.

    Positron emission tomographic evaluation of cerebral blood flow during state anxiety in simple phobia. A functional cerebral response to frightening visual stimulation. Evidence of altered cerebral blood-flow relationships in acute phobia.

    Regional cerebral blood flow during experimental phobic fear. Functional neuroanatomy of visually elicited simple phobic fear: Disentangling the web of fear: Symptom provocation in specific phobia affects the substance P neurokinin-1 receptor system.

    A positron emission tomographic study of simple phobic symptom provocation. Cerebral correlates of anticipated fear: Amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex activation during affective startle modulation: Neurophysiological correlates of habituation during exposure in spider phobia. The effect of anxiety induction on the regional uptake of 99mTc-exametazime in simple phobia as shown by single photon emission tomography SPET.

    Novelty responses and differential effects of order in the amygdala, substantia innominata, and inferior temporal cortex. Brain activation and defensive response mobilization during sustained exposure to phobia-related and other affective pictures in spider phobia. Brain activation to phobia-related pictures in spider phobic humans: Brain activation of spider phobics towards disorder-relevant, generally disgust-and fear-inducing pictures.

    Weaving the neuronal web: Visual presentation of phobic stimuli: Amygdala hyperfunction in phobic fear normalizes after exposure. Symptom provocation and reduction in patients suffering from spider phobia: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Attention and amygdala activity: Fear is fast in phobic individuals: Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for a lack of striatal dysfunction during implicit sequence learning in individuals with animal phobia.

    Probing striatal function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. Functional MRI study of specific animal phobia using an event-related emotional counting stroop paradigm. Neural mechanisms of automatic and direct processing of phobogenic stimuli in specific phobia. Fear and the amygdala: Effect of task conditions on brain responses to threatening faces in social phobics: Emotion regulation in spider phobia: Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci.

    Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activity in blood-injectioninjury phobia. How specific is specific phobia? Different neural response patterns in two subtypes of specific phobia. The functional neuroanatomy of blood-injection-injury phobia: Dynamics of brain responses to phobic-related stimulation in specific phobia subtypes.

    An fMRI study examining effects of acute D-cycloserine during symptom provocation in spider phobia. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain activation in specific phobia. Long-term effects of cognitive behavior therapy on brain activation in spider phobia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in anxiety disorders.

    Neuropsychopharmacology The Fifth Generation of Progress: Neural substrate of defensive behavior in the midbrain tectum. Neurochemical mechanisms of the defensive behavior in the dorsal midbrain.

    The neuropsychology of anxiety: A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: Brain function in spider phobia. Brain activation to phobia-related words in phobic subjects. Functional heterogeneity in cingulate cortex: Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Neural correlates of individual ratings of emotional salience: Emotion circuits in the brain.

    Changes in frontal lobe activity with cognitive therapy for spider phobia. Surgical anatomy of the insula. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. Insular connections with the amygdala in the rhesus monkey. Decreased anterior cingulate volume in combat-related PTSD. Amygdala response in patients with acute PTSD to masked and unmasked emotional facial expressions. Neural correlates of anxiety associated with obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in normal volunteers. Amygdala activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder with contamination fear: Common and distinct brain activation to threat and safety signals in social phobia.

    Cerebral glucose metabolism associated with a fear network in panic disorder. Treatment of specific phobia in adults. One-session group therapy of spider phobia: Arntz A, Lavy E. Does stimulus elaborationpotentiate exposure invivo treatment?

    Two forms of one-session treatment of spider phobia. Hellstrom K, Ost LG. One-session therapist directed exposure vs two forms of manual directed self-exposure in the treatment of spider phobia.

    One-session group treatment of spider phobia.

    Early interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults: a systematic literature review

    Ila M.P. LinaresI; Clarissa TrzesniakI; Marcos Hortes N. ChagasI; Jaime E. C. HallakI; Antonio E. NardiII; José Alexandre S. CrippaI. IDepartment of. Review article. Early interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults: a systematic literature review. ILA M. P. LINARES. FELIPE D'ALESSANDRO F. CORCHS. D.J. Veltman, W.E. Tuinebreijer, D. Winkelman, A.A. Lammertsma, M.P. Witter, R.J. Dolan, P.M. EmmelkampNeurophysiological correlates of habituation during .



    Add Comment