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medical acronym cbd

redlook
19.06.2018

Content:

  • medical acronym cbd
  • List of medical abbreviations: C
  • Related topics
  • 26 definitions of CBD. Definition of CBD in Science & Medicine. What does CBD stand for?. Looking for online definition of CBD in the Medical Dictionary? CBD explanation free. What is CBD? Meaning of CBD medical term. What does CBD mean?. Medical abbreviations · ← previous page of list (B) complementary and alternative medicine. CAMP, cyclic CBD, common bile duct. CBE, clinical breast.

    medical acronym cbd

    This discovery earned him godfather status of modern cannabis. In February of , Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy.

    The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time. In , a group of scientists researched and studied the effects of CBD on anxiety and found that it has potent anxiolytic, or anti-anxiety, properties as well.

    This groundbreaking moment paved the way for public support and lucrative research opportunities. Geoffrey Guy and Dr. Brian Whittle to found GW Pharmaceuticals, a company that would utilize clinical trials to unpack various cannabinoid formulations as potential therapies with the overriding focus of developing what would later be known as Sativex Nabiximols.

    These mounting developments in the elicited a problem amongst cannabis cultivators across the US: Essentially, CBD had been selectively bred out of existence across the country. Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC.

    This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting Cannabidiol is as versatile as THC — perhaps even more so. Through science and determination, CBD has worked its way into an entire host of products.

    Combusting or vaporizing flower allows users to almost immediately feel the therapeutic effects of CBD. CBD isolate is cannabidiol in its purest form: CBD can also be purchased in concentrate form, including raw CBD oil, cartridges, vape pens, syringes and more.

    Research and opportunity have driven chefs and chemists to infuse CBD into all sorts of readily usable products, such as edibles to elixirs, sublingual sprays, capsules and even topicals. Much like concentrates, each infusion sports specific combinations or isolations of CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids, allowing users to pick and choose products that suit their exact needs. CBD topicals, for example, are incredibly effective when applied to surface-level problems like bruises, joint aches, and headaches, and have been scientifically proven to successfully combat skin-based issues including pruritus with far broader implications.

    According to the federal government, Schedule I drugs are substances or chemicals with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. To further confuse the American citizenry, some states permit patients the use of CBD, but require that they travel to another state to purchase it.

    The mosaic of laws that govern CBD legality across the globe varies just as much as the legislation across the US. Note, however, the differences between the two.

    Legislation regarding international travel with CBD also varies among countries. For the foreseeable future, the best practice would be to search online, or contact the respective embassies or consulates, before traveling to determine whether your CBD is safe and legal.

    Definition A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. A study published by the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that CBD helps to lower the production of sebum that leads to acne, partly because of its anti-inflammatory effect on the body. Sebum is an oily substance, and overproduction can cause acne.

    Initial research published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found that CBD was able to prevent the development of social recognition deficit in participants. This means that CBD could help people in the early stages of Alzheimer's to keep the ability to recognize the faces of people that they know. This is the first evidence that CBD may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Cannabis is legal for either medicinal or recreational use in some American states.

    Other states have approved the use of CBD oil as a hemp product but not the general use of medical marijuana. Some state and federal laws differ, and current marijuana and CBD legislation in the U. There is an ever-changing number of states that do not necessarily consider marijuana to be legal but have laws directly related to CBD oil.

    The following information is accurate as of May 8, , but the laws change frequently. However, state legislators generally approve the use of CBD oil at various concentrations to treat a range of epileptic conditions.

    A full list of states that have CBD-specific laws is available here. Different states also require different levels of prescription to possess and use CBD oil. In Missouri, for example, a person can use CBD of a particular composition if they can show that three other treatment options have failed to treat their epilepsy. Anyone considering CBD oil should speak with a local healthcare provider. They can provide information about safe CBD sources and local laws surrounding usage.

    This is one of more than 80 active chemicals in marijuana. The new product was approved to treat seizures associated with two rare, severe forms of epilepsy in patients two years of age and older. Many small-scale studies have looked into the safety of CBD in adults. They concluded that adults tend to tolerate a wide range of doses well.

    Researchers have found no significant side effects on the central nervous system , the vital signs, or mood, even among people who used high dosages.

    The most common side effect was tiredness. Also, some people reported diarrhea and changes in appetite or weight. Concerning the product that the FDA approved to treat two types of epilepsy, researchers noticed following adverse effects in clinical trials:.

    The patient information leaflet notes that there is a risk of worsening depression or suicidal thoughts. It is important to monitor anyone who is using this drug for signs of mood change. Research suggests that a person taking the product is unlikely to form a dependency. There is often a lack of evidence regarding the safety of new or alternative treatment options. Usually, researchers have not performed the full array of tests. Anyone who is considering using CBD should talk to a qualified healthcare practitioner beforehand.

    When drugs do not have FDA approval, it can be difficult to know whether a product contains a safe or effective level of CBD.

    Unapproved products may not have the properties or contents stated on the packaging. It is important to note that researchers have linked marijuana use during pregnancy to impairments in the fetal development of neurons.

    Regular use among teens is associated with issues concerning memory, behavior, and intelligence. CBD-based products come in many forms. Some can be mixed into different foods or drinks or taken with a pipette or dropper.

    Others are available in capsules or as a thick paste to be massaged into the skin. Some products are available as sprays to be administered under the tongue. Recommended dosages vary between individuals, and depend on factors such as body weight, the concentration of the product, and the health issue.

    Due to the lack of FDA regulation for most CBD products, seek advice from a medical professional before determining the best dosage. As regulation in the U. After discussing dosages and risks with a doctor, and researching regional local laws, it is important to compare different brands of CBD oil. There is a selection of CBD products available for purchase online.

    CBD has been tested and approved for one specific use. Does this mean it is safe and will soon have approval for other uses? The research is emerging to support the use of CBD for numerous conditions, as well as looking closely at safety, side effects, and long-term effects. There are some valid concerns about long-term use that must be tested before CBD can be recommended for other diseases. As one approach to pain management, it is seen as an alternative option to the addicting narcotics.

    The use of CBD oil might complement a medical approach to treating physical and mental diseases. It is worth discussing with your doctor. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you.

    We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link s above. Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Fri 27 July All references are available in the References tab. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders. Neurotherapeutics, 12 4 , — Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice [Abstract].

    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 42 4 , 1,—1, Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia, 55 6 , — An updated review of the research on the risks and harms associated to the use of marijuana.

    The chronic study we want to describe in more detail here used a transgenic mouse model of AD, where 2. CBD was able to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in the AD transgenic mice. Using statistical analysis by analysis of variance, this was shown to be only a trend. This might have been caused by the high variation in the transgenic mouse group, though. This was probably due to already elevated cholesterol in the transgenic mice. The study observed no side effects.

    After CBD treatment was stopped, observation continued until the mice were 24 weeks old. CBD increased IL levels, which is thought to act as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in this context. After inducing arthritis in rats using Freund's adjuvant, various CBD doses 0. CBD reduced joint swelling, immune cell infiltration. CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis.

    Helix-loop-helix Id proteins play a role in embryogenesis and normal development via regulation of cell differentiation. High Id1-levels were also found in breast, prostate, brain, and head and neck tumor cells, which were highly aggressive. In contrast, Id1 expression was low in noninvasive tumor cells. Id1 seems to influence the tumor cell phenotype by regulation of invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation.

    There only seems to exist one study that could not show an adverse CBD effect on embryogenesis. An in vitro study could show that the development of two-cell embryos was not arrested at CBD concentrations of 6. Various studies have been performed to study CBD anticancer effects. CBD every 3 days for a total of 28 weeks, almost completely reduced the development of metastatic nodules caused by injection of human lung carcinoma cells A in nude mice.

    The typical side effects of traditional anticancer medication, emesis, and collateral toxicity were not described in these studies. Consequently, CBD could be an alternative to other MMP1 inhibitors such as marimastat and prinomastat, which have shown disappointing clinical results due to these drugs' adverse muscoskeletal effects.

    Two studies showed in various cell lines and in tumor-bearing mice that CBD was able to reduce tumor metastasis. CBD downregulated Id1 at promoter level and reduced tumor aggressiveness. Moreover, to carry out these experiments, animals are often immunologically compromised, to avoid immunogenic reactions as a result to implantation of human cells into the animals, which in turn can also affect the results.

    Another approach was chosen by Aviello et al. After 3 months, the number of aberrant crypt foci, polyps, and tumors was analyzed. The high CBD concentration led to a significant decrease in polyps and a return to near-normal levels of phosphorylated Akt elevation caused by the carcinogen. Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al.

    Chronic administration 14 days, 2. This effect could be inhibited by coadministration of a CB2R antagonist. The positive effects of CBD on hyperglycemia seem to be mainly mediated via CBD anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In addition, treatment increased adiponectin and liver glycogen concentrations. CBD showed inhibition of testosterone oxidation in the liver. Motor function was also tested on a rotarod, which was also not affected by CBD administration.

    Static beam performance, as an indicator of sensorimotor coordination, showed more footslips in the CBD group, but CBD treatment did not interfere with the animals' speed and ability to complete the test. Compared to other anticonvulsant drugs, this effect was minimal. CBD did not lead to adverse effects. In addition, psychomotor function and psychological functions were not disturbed.

    Interestingly, the CYP2C19 inhibitor omeprazole, used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, could not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of CBD. Unfortunately, it was not mentioned whether this effect was mediated via the cytochrome P complex.

    Another aspect, which has not been thoroughly looked at, to our knowledge, is that several cytochrome isozymes are not only expressed in the liver but also in the brain. It might be interesting to research organ-specific differences in the level of CBD inhibition of various isozymes.

    Apart from altering the bioavailability in the overall plasma of the patient, this interaction might alter therapeutic outcomes on another level. Generally, more human studies, which monitor CBD-drug interactions, are needed.

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. This was followed by a single 0. This extensive tool tests, for example, 78 adverse effects divided into 23 categories corresponding to organ systems or body parts.

    No respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications were recorded during any test session. The results of the evaluation of pharmacokinetics, to see if interaction between the drugs occurred, were as follows.

    No effect was evident for urinary CBD and metabolite excretion except at the higher fentanyl dose, in which CBD clearance was reduced. Importantly, fentanyl coadministration did not produce respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications during the test sessions and CBD did not potentiate fentanyl's effects.

    No correlation was found between CBD dose and plasma cortisol levels. CBD did not worsen the adverse effects e. Coadministration was safe and well tolerated, paving the way to use CBD as a potential treatment for opioid addiction. A Dutch study compared subjective adverse effects of three different strains of medicinal cannabis, distributed via pharmacies, using VAS. The 12 adjectives used for this study were as follows: This strain showed significantly lower levels of anxiety and dejection.

    Moreover, appetite increased less in the high CBD strain. The review by Bergamaschi et al. This holds especially true for the extrapyramidal motor side effects elicited by classical antipsychotic medication. Order of drug administration was pseudorandomized across subjects, so that an equal number of subjects received any of the drugs during the first, second, or third session in a double-blind, repeated-measures, within-subject design.

    This effect was caused by opposite neural activation of relevant brain areas. In addition, no effects on peripheral cardiovascular measures such as heart rate and blood pressure were measured.

    A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy nonanxious subjects using a within-subject design. The doses were selected to only evoke neurocognitive effects without causing severe toxic, physical, or psychiatric reactions.

    The physiological parameters, heart rate and blood pressure, were also monitored and no significant difference between the placebo and the CBD group was observed. A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Hepatic enzymes were also measured daily, but no effect was reported.

    Naturalistic studies with smokers inhaling cannabis with varying amounts of CBD showed that the CBD levels were not altering psychomimetic symptoms. CBD might work to alleviate disorders of addiction, by altering the attentive salience of drug cues. The study did not further measure side effects. CBD can also reduce heroin-seeking behaviors e. This was shown in the preclinical data mentioned earlier and was also replicated in a small double-blind pilot study with individuals addicted to opioids, who have been abstinent for 7 days.

    One hour after the video session, subjective craving was already reduced after a single CBD administration. The effect persisted for 7 days after the last CBD treatment. Interestingly, anxiety measures were also reduced after treatment, whereas no adverse effects were described. A pilot study with 24 subjects was conducted in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to evaluate the impact of the ad hoc use of CBD in smokers, who wished to stop smoking.

    Pre- and post-testing for mood and craving of the participants was executed. Craving was assessed using the Tiffany Craving Questionnaire On day 1 and 7, exhaled CO was measured to test smoking status. Sedation, depression, and anxiety were evaluated with the MRS. At day 7, the anxiety levels for placebo and CBD group did not differ. CBD did not increase depression in contrast to the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant.

    CBD might weaken the attentional bias to smoking cues or could have disrupted reconsolidation, thereby destabilizing drug-related memories. To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects. Moreover, the only acute study that also measured CBD effect on appetite was the study we described above, comparing different cannabis strains.

    Growth hormone and prolactin levels were unchanged. Compared to the healthy individuals, the cortisol levels increased less after TSST in the 32 at-risk individuals. The CBD group showed less reduced cortisol levels but differences were not significant. Truly chronic studies with CBD are still scarce.

    Nonetheless, we also included these studies with repeated CBD treatment, because we think that compared to a one-time dose of CBD, repeated CBD regimens add value and knowledge to the field and therefore should be mentioned here. These results are supported by another study described in the review by Grotenhermen et al. CBD was administered on average with three other drugs, including clobazam The coadministration led to an alteration of blood levels of several antiepileptic drugs. In the case of clobazam this led to sedation, and its levels were subsequently lowered in the course of the study.

    A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.

    They hopefully will shed light on the inconsistencies observerd in animal studies. Chronic studies in humans may, for instance, help to test whether, for example, an anxiolytic effect always prevails after chronic CBD treatment or whether this was an artifact of using different animal models of anxiety or depression.

    In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. This led to a reduction of their psychotic symptoms. Moreover, no serious side effects or cognitive and motor symptoms were reported.

    No adverse effects were observed and her symptoms improved. The same positive outcome was registered in another study described by Bergamaschi et al. The respective treatment was maintained for three additional weeks. This was the case for three patients in the CBD group and five patients in the amisulpride group. CBD treatment was accompanied by a substantial increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement, suggesting inhibition of anandamide deactivation via reduced FAAH activity.

    In addition, the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide both lipid mediators were also elevated in the CBD group. CBD showed less serum prolactin increase predictor of galactorrhoea and sexual dysfunction , fewer extrapyramidal symptoms measured with the Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale, and less weight gain. Moreover, electrocardiograms as well as routine blood parameters were other parameters whose effects were measured but not reported in the study.

    CBD better safety profile might improve acute compliance and long-term treatment adherence. A press release by GW Pharmaceuticals of September 15th, , described 88 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenic psychosis, treated either with CBD in addition to their regular medication or placebo.

    Important clinical parameters improved in the CBD group and the number of mild side effects was comparable to the placebo group. Moreover, neurological and physiological examinations were performed, which neither showed signs of CBD toxicity nor severe side effects. The study also illustrated that CBD was well tolerated.

    CBD in addition to their regular epilepsy medication. Another clinical study lasting at least 3 months with children and young adults with various forms of epilepsy, who were treated with the CBD drug Epidiolex, was presented at the American Academy for Neurology in In a few cases, severe side effects occurred, but it is not clear, if these were caused by Epidiolex.

    List of medical abbreviations: C

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in It is one of some identified Side effects of long-term use listed on the Epidiolex label include . Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is a patented medicine containing CBD and . CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, one of the many It's also different from medical marijuana, which has been shown to reduce pain. Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the .

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