While the both in the middle are more around a CBD:THC ratio. (especially over 30mg if ingested), Euphoria, uplifting mood, confused thought, For more valid information about CBD:THC ratio, please consult these other informative If THC levels identified in the sample are very high, take caution with dosage. CBD tinctures will usually consist of a number of ingredients that CBD oil tinctures will usually come in 15ml/oz, 30ml/1oz and 60ml/2oz is that they are mostly NOT CBD oil and mostly other ingredients. Use: CBD oil tinctures are best if placed under the tongue for seconds until dissolved. Find the answers to all of your frequently asked questions regarding CBD oil, cannabinoids, hemp What is CBD oil & how does it work? If a hemp extract is 40% cannabinoids, what's the other 60%? What's in your hemp extracts besides the .. Is a standard hemp seed oil the same as a high-CBD hemp extract?.
high the does CBD, is what of? oil other CBD If 60% 30% a consist
Studies examining the characteristics of medical cannabis patients in the US have revealed that the majority medicate daily 7 — 9 and consume 6—9 g of cannabis per week.
In addition to patients with access to prescribed medical cannabis, there is also a huge population of users who consume cannabis recreationally or for self-defined medical reasons. THC is the primary psychoactive component found within cannabis, and has been shown to have analgesic effects.
THC and CBD Figure 1 are biosynthesized as deltatetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, respectively, from a common precursor, 26 and require decarboxylation by heat or extraction to produce THC and CBD properties.
THC mimics the action of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. CBD has intrinsic analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its own 22 , 23 , 35 and antagonizes several adverse effects of THC, including sedation, 27 , 36 tachycardia, 27 , 37 and anxiety.
For example, CBD has been shown to bind TRPV1 and mediate its desensitization 39 and to inhibit inactivation of anandamide, 39 both of which contribute to its analgesic actions. CBD also has potent anti-inflammatory properties, 21 and may reduce pain by indirectly limiting inflammation at the site of injury. Although significant preclinical data have highlighted the potential therapeutic benefits of smoked cannabis for pain relief in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, no randomized controlled trials RCTs have been carried out for these conditions.
This needed to treat value rivals that of currently available therapeutics for chronic neuropathic pain, 48 which is typically well above 8.
This finding provides additional support for the notion that cannabis is an effective analgesic for chronic neuropathic pain. Medical cannabis is also used for some cancer patients to relieve symptoms including nausea and vomiting often caused by some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy , loss of appetite, and pain. However, more research is required to identify strains and dose of medical cannabis that provide the optimal symptom relief with minimal side effects for this population.
To date, most pharmacokinetic studies of cannabinoids have focused on the bioavailability of inhaled THC, which varies substantially in the literature, likely due to differences in factors such as breath-hold length, source of cannabis material, and method of inhalation. The latency of effect onset for inhaled cannabis is shorter than that for cannabis consumed orally, requiring only minutes from the time of consumption to see observable changes, compared to hours when taken by the oral route.
Hepatic cytochrome p enzymes govern cannabinoid bioavailability. THC is metabolized primarily by CYP 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4, 53 and drugs that inhibit these enzymes, including proton pump inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors, macrolides, anti-mycotics, calcium antagonists, and some antidepressants, can increase the bioavailability of THC.
This can be mitigated fairly easily through prescribing practice, since the psychoactive effects of cannabis are primarily associated with high-THC strains. Medical cannabis is not typically covered by insurance plans in Canada.
This can cause a significant concern for chronic pain patients who are often disabled, retired, or unable to work. The price of medical cannabis is not currently regulated in Canada. Many chronic pain patients considering medical cannabis anticipate disapproval from their friends and family.
It is not uncommon for patients to avoid disclosing their medical cannabis use to their loved ones altogether, despite experiencing significant improvements in their pain management and quality of life. These concerns are rooted in societal stigmatization of cannabis and can often be mitigated by enabling patients to medicalize their approach to disclosure.
By explaining to friends and family that cannabis has been prescribed to them as a medicine which is used to treat a variety of conditions, patients may avoid some of the stigmatization associated with use of medical cannabis.
Empowering patients with evidence-based knowledge will significantly facilitate this process. Many chronic pain patients have limited or no experience using cannabis. Certainly, some degree of education is required for inexperienced patients to become aware of their options for routes of administration and to understand how to exercise each method.
Clinicians are not commonly familiar with these processes as it is not included in the current medical curriculums. However, it would be valuable for clinicians to gain knowledge in these matters to help answer patient questions and inform their prescribing practices. This education can be provided to clinicians in the future through Continuing Medical Education hours. Currently, this education is offered to patients by some licensed producers. Furthermore, clinics may have educators ie, nurse educators and other scientifically trained staff to educate patients on these matters.
Newly prescribed patients should also be made aware of practical and legal limitations, including barriers to traveling with the medication. In , upward of 1, studies were published on cannabinoids.
Knowledge is rapidly expanding and has led to a change in attitudes toward medical cannabis. A popular example of this change was the apology by Dr Sanjay Gupta in for not better appreciating cannabis as a potential therapeutic drug.
Relatedly, some regional differences in the accessibility of medical cannabis have been reported. Examination of patient forums suggests that one reason for these regional differences may be a lack of physicians willing to prescribe medical cannabis in these regions. Providing physicians with evidence-based guidelines and training in prescribing practices will likely decrease such barriers to accessibility of medical cannabis.
Regardless, an incidence of dependency of one per eleven is still significantly lower than those of approved pharmaceuticals commonly used for chronic pain management. With the introduction of the MMPR in Canada, physicians are advised to follow the guidance set forth by their provincial college. The aim of the MMPR is to treat medical cannabis like other narcotics used for medicinal purposes whenever possible.
Under the MMPR, the patient must consult with a medical doctor or a qualified nurse practitioner. These medical documents are treated similarly to prescriptions. They must meet specific requirements, including patient name, date of birth, physician information, including license number and signature, a daily allotment in grams, and a length of time for the access not exceeding 1 year. While there is no legal requirement for licensed producers to follow strain and THC recommendations, many will abide by the request of the physician.
Dispensaries and compassion clubs are not permitted under MMPR, so appropriate steps should be taken to ensure a patient is only being referred to Health Canada-approved organizations. Once the patients purchase the medication from the company, it is shipped to their home, or that of their caretaker. Alternatively, arrangements may be made for the licensed producer to transfer the drug to the health care prescriber, from which it can then be obtained by the patients. It should be noted that Health Canada neither approves nor regulates medical cannabis like it does pharmaceutical drugs.
Thus, the medical document issued by physicians for medical cannabis is distinct from, and only partially analogous to, a prescription. Instead, the medical document can be viewed as a recommendation to the medical cannabis program. In Quebec, a distinction is made that physicians should not provide such a document unless it is part of a recognized research project and only for specified conditions. Other provincial colleges will have their own requirements.
A recent decision by the Supreme Court of Canada has overturned the original requirements for licensed producers and patients to only sell and consume dried cannabis. This decision allows the sale of fresh, dried, and oil forms of cannabis to patients.
Though, as of writing, no licensed producer has yet to be granted permission to sell fresh and oil alternative forms to patients.
As mentioned, prescription and recommendation of medical cannabis at this point is largely nonspecific. Patients are recommended to the medical cannabis program but not necessarily a specific strain. Increasingly, an understanding of how specific strains of medical cannabis can offer benefit for specific ailments is appreciated by those recommending the use of medical cannabis. Unfortunately, the body of evidence supporting these practices is limited, due to an overall lack of investigation, which prevents physicians from making informed decisions to best improve the risk—benefit relationship of medical cannabis in their patients.
Many colleges recommend that Canadian physicians treat medical cannabis as they would any other prescribed narcotic drug. This often includes the use of patient—physician agreements on appropriate use and informed consent of the new medication.
Physicians should also consider other following factors when recommending medical cannabis to their patients. MMPR requires the recommending physician allot a set amount of cannabis to which a patient will have access on a daily basis.
Medical cannabis programs report average patient use of between 0. However, patients report using up to 10 g of cannabis per day for self-medication purposes. Both the amount the patients currently use for self-identified medical reasons and their preferred route of administration should be taken into consideration when recommending an amount of medical cannabis.
Given that evidence supporting the use of specific medical cannabis strains for various pain ailments is lacking, recommending a strain type to a patient can be difficult.
The decision is often determined by a number of factors, including financial concerns, potential risk to the patient, and specific goals of the patient such as to improve sleep or to avoid feeling high.
Typically, recommendations are made based on medical history, cannabis use history, and financial barriers. Once all of these factors have been considered, a strain is selected by the clinician from a range of varieties recommended for medical use by Health Canada from authorized licensed producers.
Each licensed producer produces different strains suitable for various medical purposes. Patients with a history of cannabis use and no significant risk factors are initially prescribed a strain with higher THC content and maximal CBD content. If patients fail to get relief from their initial strains, an increase in the THC content is recommended in a stepwise fashion, as long as serious risk factors are not present.
If risk factors are present, the risk—benefit analysis for this patient must be readdressed. Many colleges recommend indicating an amount of THC a patient would be permitted to access with a licensed producer. Unfortunately, the current regulatory environment in Canada does not require a licensed producer adhere to the recommendation.
Likewise, there is rarely any guidance on prescribing strains with CBD content. Many patients have concerns about medical cannabis smoke, which contains many of the same carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke. Inhalation by vaporization is the most effective route at delivering the medicinal cannabinoid content of medical cannabis, 75 and both dried and extracted medical cannabis can be used in a vaporizer.
Sometimes, vaporization can be burdensome for patients. Indeed, loading a vaporizer requires some degree of dexterity, which may be limited in certain populations of pain patients, such as those with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Patients may also complain of the temperature of vapor created by vaporization. Many patients require fairly extensive education regarding the use of a vaporizer. Oral ingestion of medical cannabis typically refers to consumption of cannabis oils or edibles. These are generally produced by infusing a lipophilic substance, like an oil or butter, with cannabis, which is then used in drops or in food.
Indeed, a number of recipes have become available online for the use of cannabis oil and butter in food, though some patients dislike the strong flavor. For patients with respiratory illnesses, the oral route is preferable. This method is limited, however, by lower absorption and bioavailability than for inhaled cannabis. Another potential concern is a lack of research on the effectiveness and safety of orally consumed cannabis for pain conditions.
Given the increased latency of effect onset from orally consumed medical cannabis, patients should be cautioned to wait an adequate amount of time to feel the effects of the cannabis before readministering. While issues of dosing and effectiveness exist for orally administered cannabis, it is typically well tolerated by patients.
Sublingual tinctures are another, less common, route of administration for medical cannabis. Typically, these tinctures are extracted with ethanol, but vinegars and glycerine may also be used. The extracts are dropped under the tongue and held for a period of time sufficient to permit absorption by the branches of the lingual artery, including the sublingual and deep lingual arteries.
If used properly, onset of action and bioavailability may be faster and higher for this route compared with oral administration, as is often observed with other drugs. However, the use of tinctures is not widespread today, and evidence supporting the therapeutic use of tinctures is limited.
Moreover, patients often complain of the taste. In Canada, there is currently a sublingual cannabinoid pharmaceutical known as Sativex. This is approved for multiple sclerosis MS -related neuropathic pain or spasticity and for cancer-related pain. A case series has also been published on its effectiveness for fibromyalgia. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal ointments and balms, ophthalmic drops, and rectal suppositories.
While rarely used, all of these routes may have therapeutic potential for patients, though little research has been done to assess this likelihood. When introducing a patient to medical cannabis for the first time, it is important to schedule frequent follow-ups until a strain has been selected that meets the treatment goals of both patient and physician.
Since this process may require changes such as route of administration, an active follow-up schedule may be required to provide the patient with adequate knowledge to continue safely and confidently. Once a patient has been stabilized, follow-up visits should focus on monitoring for adverse reactions, including dependence. In Canada, the medical document that is produced to allow a patient access to cannabis acts as a license. Several contraindications have been identified for medical cannabis recommendations.
Due in part to the illicit nature of cannabis, research is lacking and there is a significant knowledge gap in this area, and medical cannabis recommendations should always be made with careful consideration of the current health status of the patient. As previously mentioned, individuals suffering from, or at a high risk of developing, schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses should only be recommended the use of cannabis under well-monitored conditions.
The use of strains with minimal or no THC content is recommended. Recently, Kim et al found that cannabis use was significantly associated with lower rates of remission of bipolar spectrum patients over a 2-year follow-up period.
It is estimated that C. However, mild rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms can be treated with antihistamines, intranasal steroids, and nasal decongestants. Findings from the currently available research suggest that the safety profile of the short-term use of medical cannabis is acceptable. The most commonly reported adverse effect was dizziness Rates of serious adverse effects did not vary between the group of participants assigned to medical cannabis and controls. A year-old, single male patient reporting chronic lower back pain due to diagnoses of spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, and neuropathic pain including sciatica for over 20 years presented at our clinic.
The patient also had diagnoses of gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and anxiety. At the time of meeting, the patient was using nabilone 0. After several unsuccessful attempts at pain control using physiotherapy, chiropractic, osteopathy, acupuncture, corticosteroid injections, oxycodone, and Percocet, the patient confided he turned to illicit cannabis for pain relief on a daily basis, primarily in the evening after work.
The patient also indicated he did not see a need for pregabalin, and had begun the process of lowering his daily dose. Surprisingly, the patient also reported far fewer symptoms of his irritable bowel syndrome, claiming near-remission.
A year-old, married male patient reporting fibromyalgia for 5 years, and osteoarthritis, torn shoulder tendon, and spinal stenosis for over 20 years was referred to our clinic. The patient also had a history of severe obesity, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, and anxiety. Signs of neuropathic pain included widespread allodynia and positive DN4 score.
Physiotherapy, corticosteroid injections, codeine, and a number of anti-inflammatory medications were unsuccessful at achieving adequate analgesia. The patient was inexperienced with cannabis, except for intermittent use on weekends. The patient was prescribed 1. A year-old, single female patient reporting neuropathic pain secondary to MS diagnosis of over 20 years was referred to our clinic by her pain intervention physician.
The patient was actively taking gabapentin 2, mg daily and celecoxib mg daily. The patient could not tolerate the use of opiate medications, claiming dissatisfaction with their sedative effects. Failed pain interventions included IV lidocaine and lumbar radiofrequency ablation. The patient was prescribed 1 g per day of cannabis containing 2. This review documents some of the relevant history and current research literature on medical cannabis.
It draws to attention the key concerns in the Canadian medical system and provides updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic and other medication use and their adverse effects , and enhanced quality of life. RCTs using large population samples are needed in order to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.
Cannabis-based medicine is a rapidly emerging field of which all pain physicians need to be aware. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Pain Res v. Published online Sep Find articles by Sara L Bober. Enriched odour exposure in adult mice induced olfactory system neurogenesis Rochefort et al. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy might theoretically apply. The myriad effects of CBD on 5-HT 1A activity provide a strong rationale for this and other phytocannabinoids as base compounds for treatment of anxiety.
Newer findings, particularly imaging studies of CBD in normal individuals in anxiety models Fusar-Poli et al. Even more compelling is a recent randomized control trial of pure CBD in patients with social anxiety disorder with highly statistical improvements over placebo in anxiety and cognitive impairment Crippa et al.
Addition of anxiolytic limonene and linalool could contribute to the clinical efficacy of a CBD extract. THC was demonstrated effective in a small crossover clinical trial versus placebo in 11 agitated dementia patients with Alzheimer's disease Volicer et al. Certainly, the anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects of CBD may be of additional benefit Zuardi et al. A recent study supports the concept that CBD, when present in significant proportion to THC, is capable of eliminating induced cognitive and memory deficits in normal subjects smoking cannabis Morgan et al.
Psychopharmacological effects of limonene, pinene and linalool could putatively extend benefits in mood in such patients. The effects of cannabis on sleep have been reviewed Russo et al. Certainly, terpenoids with pain-relieving, anti-anxiety or sedative effects may supplement such activity, notably, caryophyllene, linalool and myrcene.
The issue of cannabis addiction remains controversial. Some benefit of oral THC has been noted in cannabis withdrawal Hart et al. More intriguing, perhaps, are claims of improvement on other substance dependencies, particularly cocaine Labigalini et al.
The situation with CBD is yet more promising. The authors proposed CBD as a treatment for heroin craving and addiction relapse.
A recent study demonstrated the fascinating result that patients with damage to the insula due to cerebrovascular accident were able to quit tobacco smoking without relapse or urges Naqvi et al. Further study has confirmed the role of the insula in cocaine, alcohol and heroin addiction Naqvi and Bechara, ; Naqvi and Bechara, In a provocative parallel, CBD mg p.
Human studies have recently demonstrated that human volunteers smoking cannabis with higher CBD content reduced their liking for drug-related stimuli, including food Morgan et al. The authors posited that CBD can modulate reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, and help in training to reduce relapse to alcoholism.
A single case report of a successful withdrawal from cannabis dependency utilizing pure CBD treatment was recently published Crippa et al. Perhaps terpenoids can provide adjunctive support. In a clinical trial, 48 cigarette smokers inhaling vapour from an EO of black pepper Piper nigrum , a mint-menthol mixture or placebo Rose and Behm, Rather, might not the effect have been pharmacological? The terpenoid profile of black pepper suggests possible candidates: CB 2 is expressed in dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens, areas mediating addictive phenomena Xi et al.
Activation of CB 2 by the synthetic agonist JWH administered systemically, intranasally, or by microinjection into the nucleus accumbens in rats inhibited DA release and cocaine self-administration. Caryophyllene, as a high-potency selective CB 2 agonist Gertsch et al. All factors considered, CBD, with caryophyllene, and possibly other adjunctive terpenoids in the extract, offers significant promise in future addiction treatment.
Various sources highlight the limited therapeutic index of pure THC, when given intravenously D'Souza et al. CBD modulates the psychoactivity of THC and reduces its adverse event profile Russo and Guy, , highlighted by recent results above described. Could it be, however, that other cannabis components offer additional attenuation of the less undesirable effects of THC?
History provides some clues. In 10th century Persia, Al-Razi offered a prescription in his Manafi al-agdhiya wa-daf madarri-ha p. This concept was repeated in various forms by various authorities through the ages, including ibn Sina ibn Sina Avicenna , , and Ibn al-Baytar ibn al-Baytar, , until O'Shaughnessy brought Indian hemp to Britain in O'Shaughnessy, Robert Christison subsequently cited lemon Figure 3A as an antidote to acute intoxication in numerous cases Christison, and this excerpt regarding morning-after residua Christison, p.
A Lemon Citrus limon. B Calamus plant roots Acorus calamus. C Pine nuts Pinus spp. D Black pepper Piper nigrum. Next morning there was an ordinary appetite, much torpidity, great defect and shortness of memory, extreme apparent protraction of time, but no peculiarity of articulation or other effect; and these symptoms lasted until 2 P. Literary icons on both sides of the Atlantic espoused similar support for the citrus cure in the 19th century, notably Bayard Taylor after travels in Syria Taylor, , and Fitzhugh Ludlow after his voluntary experiments with ever higher cannabis extract doses in the USA Ludlow, The sentiment was repeated by Calkins , who noted the suggestion of a friend in Tunis that lemon retained the confidence of cure of overdoses by cannabis users in that region.
In his comprehensive review of cannabis in the first half of the 20th century, Walton once more supported its prescription Walton, Another traditional antidote to cannabis employing Acorus calamus Figure 3B is evident from the Ayurvedic tradition of India Lad, , p. Calamus root is the best antidote for the ill effects of marijuana. This claim has gained credence, not only through force of anecdotal accounts that abound on the Internet, but with formal scientific case reports and scientific analysis McPartland et al.
Historical precedents also support pinene in this pharmacological role. If this be taken in myrrh and wine all kinds of phantoms beset the mind, causing laughter which persists until the kernels of pine-nuts are taken with pepper and honey in palm wine. Of the components, palm wine is perhaps the most mysterious. Ethanol does not reduce cannabis intoxication Mello and Mendelson, However, ancient wines were stored in clay pots or goatskins, and required preservation, usually with addition of pine tar or terebinth resin from Pistacia spp.
Pine tar is rich in pinene, as is terebinth resin from Pistacia terebinthus ; Tsokou et al. Likewise, the pine nuts Figure 3C prescribed by Pliny the Elder harbour pinene, along with additional limonene Salvadeo et al. Al-Ukbari also suggested pistachio nuts as a cannabis antidote in the 13th century Lozano, , and the ripe fruits of Pistacia terebinthus similarly contain pinene Couladis et al.
The historical suggestions for cannabis antidotes are thus supported by modern scientific rationales for the claims, and if proven experimentally would provide additional evidence of synergy Berenbaum, ; Wagner and Ulrich-Merzenich, Considered ensemble, the preceding body of information supports the concept that selective breeding of cannabis chemotypes rich in ameliorative phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content offer complementary pharmacological activities that may strengthen and broaden clinical applications and improve the therapeutic index of cannabis extracts containing THC, or other base phytocannabinoids.
Psychopharmacological and dermatological indications show the greatest promise. One important remaining order of business is the elucidation of mono- and sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic pathways in cannabis, as has been achieved previously in other species of plants Croteau, ; Gershenzon and Croteau, ; Bohlmann et al.
Various cannabis component combinations or cannabis extracts should be examined via high throughput pharmacological screening where not previously accomplished. Another goal is the investigation of the biochemical targets of the cannabis terpenoids, along with their mechanisms of action, particularly in the central nervous system.
Possible techniques for such research include radio-labelling of select agents in animals with subsequent necropsy. On a molecular level, investigation of terpenoid changes to phytocannabinoid signal transduction and trafficking may prove illuminating. While it is known that terpenoids bind to odorant receptors in the nasal mucosa Friedrich, and proximal olfactory structures Barnea et al.
Given that farnesyl pyrophosphate is a sesquiterpenoid precursor and the most potent endogenous agonist yet discovered for GPR92 McHugh et al. Behavioural assays of agents in animal models may also provide clues. Simple combinations of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may demonstrate synergy as antibiotics if MICs are appreciable lowered Wagner and Ulrich-Merzenich, Ultimately, fMRI and single photon emission computed tomography studies in humans, with simultaneous drug reaction questionnaires and psychometric testing employing individual agents and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid pairings via vaporization or oromucosal application, would likely offer safe and effective methods to investigate possible interactions and synergy.
Should positive outcomes result from such studies, phytopharmaceutical development may follow. The development of zero-cannabinoid cannabis chemotypes de Meijer et al.
Selective cross-breeding of high-terpenoid- and high-phytocannabinoid-specific chemotypes has thus become a rational target that may lead to novel approaches to such disorders as treatment-resistant depression, anxiety, drug dependency, dementia and a panoply of dermatological disorders, as well as industrial applications as safer pesticides and antiseptics.
A better future via cannabis phytochemistry may be an achievable goal through further research of the entourage effect in this versatile plant that may help it fulfil its promise as a pharmacological treasure trove. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Br J Pharmacol v.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Tetrahydrocannabinol THC has been the primary focus of cannabis research since , when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. The roots of cannabis synergy Cannabis has been a medicinal plant of unparalleled versatility for millennia Mechoulam, ; Russo, ; ; , but whose mechanisms of action were an unsolved mystery until the discovery of tetrahydrocannabinol THC Gaoni and Mechoulam, a , the first cannabinoid receptor, CB 1 Devane et al.
Table 1 Phytocannabinoid activity table. Open in a separate window. Selected possibilities for phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy Cannabis and acne AEA simulates lipid production in human sebocytes of sebaceous glands at low concentrations, but induces apoptosis at higher levels, suggesting that this system is under ECS control Dobrosi et al. Conclusions and suggestions for future study Considered ensemble, the preceding body of information supports the concept that selective breeding of cannabis chemotypes rich in ameliorative phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content offer complementary pharmacological activities that may strengthen and broaden clinical applications and improve the therapeutic index of cannabis extracts containing THC, or other base phytocannabinoids.
Click here to view. Safety evaluation of essential oils: Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: Prevention of vitamin A teratogenesis by phytol or phytanic acid results from reduced metabolism of retinol to the teratogenic metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid.
Antileishmanial activity of the terpene nerolidol. Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.
Odorant receptors on axon termini in the brain. Anti-inflammatory activity of oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera. Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of - -linalool in mice.
Antiparasitic compounds from East African plants: A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of linalool and related esters when used as fragrance ingredients. Recherches sur les proprietes pharmcodynamiques action sedative et action spasmolytique de quelques alcools terpeniques aliphatiques. Proceedings 19th Annual Conference on the Cannabinoids.
International Cannabinoid Research Society; Cannabidiol as a novel anti-acne agent? Cannabidiol inhibits lipid synthesis and induces cell death in human sebaceous gland-derived sebocytes; p. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Bisset NG, Wichtl M. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: Stuttgart; CRC Press; The plant cannabinoid Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice.
Neural basis of Deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: The Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic Oils. Orphan endogenous lipids and orphan GPCRs: Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. Chemistry and analysis of phytocannabinoids and other Cannabis constituents. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Biological activities of essential oils.
Z Naturforsch [C] ; Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects upon inhalation. Opium and the Opium-Appetite: Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Effects of marihuana in laboratory animals and in man. Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L.
Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist. Proceedings 17th Annual Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Radical-scavenging activities of citrus essential oils and their components: J Agric Food Chem. Lea and Blanchard; On the natural history, action, and uses of Indian hemp. Red Eye Press; Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.
Sesquiterpene components of volatile oils as skin penetration enhancers for the hydrophilic permeant 5-fluorouracil. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Comparative essential oil compostion of various parts of the turpentine tree Pistacia terebinthus growing wild in Turkey. J Sci Food Agric. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol CBD in generalized social anxiety disorder: Biosynthesis and catabolism of monoterpenoids.
In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by beta-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds. The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous deltatetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: Neurobehavioral actions of cannabichromene and interactions with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors for endocannabinoids, plant cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabimimetics: Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.
Delgado P, Moreno F. Antidepressants and the brain. Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol.
Denson TF, Earleywine M. Decreased depression in marijuana users. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Deyo R, Musty R. Proceedings Symposium on the Cannabinoids.
A cannabichromene CBC extract alters behavioral despair on the mouse tail suspension test of depression; p. Nonpsychoactive cannabidiol prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity. Endocannabinoids enhance lipid synthesis and apoptosis of human sebocytes via cannabinoid receptormediated signaling. Choice of drugs in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.
Crack heads and roots daughters: Chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of three Pistacia species. Effects of Linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex.
Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of certain cannabichromene and cannabigerol related compounds. Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement.
A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydro-cannabinol content. Uptake, distribution and elimination of alpha-pinene in man after exposure by inhalation. Scand J Work Environ Health. J Toxicol Environ Health. Fan X, Gates RA. Degradation of monoterpenes in orange juice by gamma radiation.
Fan X, Sokorai KJ. Changes in volatile compounds of gamma-irradiated fresh cilantro leaves during cold storage. Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oils of different Melaleuca species. Incorporation experiments with 13 C-labeled glucoses.
Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L.
Franz C, Novak J. Sources of essential oils. Fride E, Russo EB. Schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety. The Brain and Body's Marijuana and beyond. Effect of flavour components in lemon essential oil on physical or psychological stress. Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.
Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Am Chem Soc. The structure and function of cannabigerol, a new hashish constituent. Cannabichromene, a new active principle in hashish. Cannabigerol behaves as a partial agonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors; p. Emerging roles for endocannabinoids in long-term synaptic plasticity. Metabolic costs of terpenoid accumulation in higher plants. Gershenzon J, Croteau R. Lipid Metabolism in Plants.
Anti-inflammatory cannabinoids in diet: Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck.
Preliminary experiments on the chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis. Cerebrospinal anandamide levels are elevated in acute schizophrenia and are inversely correlated with psychotic symptoms.
The development of Sativex- a natural cannabis-based medicine. Cannabidiol and - Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Marijuana withdrawal in humans: Phytotherapeutic uses of essential oils. Effects of oral THC maintenance on smoked marijuana self-administration.
Cannabichromene and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Mono- and sesqui-terpene hydrocarbons of the eseential oil of Cannabis sativa.
Alkanes of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa. Is there a role for the endocannabinoid system in the etiology and treatment of melancholic depression? Pharmacological enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activity elicits an antidepressant-like response in the rat forced swim test.
Delta-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats. An endocannabinoid mechanism for stress-induced analgesia. Structure-activity relationships in man of cannabis constituents, and homologs and metabolites of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Headspace volatiles of marijuana. Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase: Kitab al-Yami' li-mufradat al-adwiya wa-l-agdiya. Neurophysiological and subjective profile of marijuana with varying concentrations of cannabinoids.
Central properties and chemcial composition of Ocimum basilicum essential oil. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.
Percutaneous absorption of lavender oil from a massage oil. J Soc Cosmet Chem. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: J Pain Symptom Manage. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system.
Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Treatment with lavender aromatherapy in the post-anesthesia care unit reduces opioid requirements of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Biological activities of Korean Citrus obovoides and Citrus natsudaidai essential oils against acne-inducing bacteria. Cannabis potency in Europe.
Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice. Effects of citrus fragrance on immune function and depressive states. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Sideritis erythrantha Boiss.
Davis endemic in Turkey. Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil. Lotus Light Publications; Fragrance material review on nerolidol isomer unspecified Food Chem Toxicol. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma.
Anti-platelet aggregation and chemical constituents from the rhizome of Gynura japonica. Aromatherapy with essential oils. Antimalarial use of volatile oil from leaves of Virola surinamensis Rol. Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
Universidad de Granada; Fragrance material review on phytol. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines. N-arachidonoyl glycine, an abundant endogenous lipid, potently drives directed cellular migration through GPR18, the putative abnormal cannabidiol receptor. Pathogenicity of Phomopsis ganjae on Cannabis sativa and the fungistatic effect of cannabinoids produced by the host.
Side effects of pharmaceuticals not elicited by comparable herbal medicines: Altern Ther Health Med. Grotenhermen F, Russo EB, editors.
Cannabis and cannabis extracts: Hemp Diseases and Pests: Management and Biological Control. Cannabimimetic effects modulated by cholinergic compounds. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
The essential oil of Cannabis sativa. Symposium on the Cannabinoids. The relevance of the steric factor in the biological activity of CBD derivaties-a tool in identifying novel molecular target for cannabinoids; p.
The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens. The breeding of cannabis cultivars for pharmaceutical end uses. Medicinal Uses of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. The pharmacohistory of Cannabis sativa.
Cannabinoids As Therapeutic Agents. Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S. From gan-zi-gun-nu to anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: Mechoulam R, Shvo Y.
The structure of cannabidiol. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Cannabidiol — recent advances. Mediavilla V, Steinemann S. Essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. J Intl Hemp Assoc. Potency trends of delta 9 -THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from to Marihuana, alcohol, and polydrug use: Merzouki A, Mesa JM. Concerning kif, a Cannabis sativa L. Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism.
Miyazawa M, Yamafuji C. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by bicyclic monoterpenoids.
For something that's meant to relax you, buying cannabis oil can be a It's also critical to make sure that only the highest-quality cannabis is used in any oil that you decide to buy. As discussed earlier, THC and CBD have different effects on the body. . Hours: Monday – Friday am – am EST. From high-profile campaigns like Vera Twomey's to numerous other personal the HPRA, CBD products will continue to be sold in Ireland, even if they are not being prescribed by doctors. “Some of these preparations are referred to as CBD oil or cannabis oil, Jul 22nd , AM .. 44, When HBJ published the inaugural CBD Industry Outlook are based on expec- . liable to the purchaser or any other person or sales data and the best currently available compound in full-spectrum hemp oil, and the . 30%. 40%. 50%. 60%. $1, U.S. TOTAL CBD PRODUCT SALES,