Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run. You've probably heard people blame their weight on a slow metabolism, but what does that mean? Is metabolism really the culprit? And if so, is. Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism.
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Pregnancy and birth services. Back to Conditions and treatments Home Conditions and treatments Metabolism. Metabolism Share show more. Digestive system Hormonal system endocrine Hormonal system endocrine - Hormonal system explained. Metabolism refers to the countless chemical processes going on continuously inside the body that allow life and normal functioning.
The amount of kilojoules your body burns at any given time is affected by your metabolism. Your metabolic rate is influenced by many factors, including age, gender, muscle-to-fat ratio, amount of physical activity and hormone function. Metabolism refers to all the chemical processes going on continuously inside your body that allow life and normal functioning maintaining normal functioning in the body is called homeostasis.
These processes include those that break down nutrients from our food, and those that build and repair our body. Building and repairing the body requires energy that ultimately comes from your food. The amount of energy, measured in kilojoules kJ , that your body burns at any given time is affected by your metabolism.
If we eat and drink more kilojoules than we need for our metabolism and exercise, we store it mostly as fat. Most of the energy you expend each day is used to keep all the systems in your body functioning properly. This is out of your control. However, you can make metabolism work for you when you exercise. Two processes of metabolism Your metabolism has two parts, which are carefully regulated by the body to make sure they remain in balance.
Anabolism requires energy that ultimately comes from our food. When we eat more than we need for daily anabolism, the excess nutrients are typically stored in our body as fat. Basal metabolic rate BMR — is the amount of kilojoules kJ burned at rest. BMR includes the energy the body uses to keep all its systems functioning correctly. It accounts for the largest amount of energy expended daily per cent of your daily energy use.
Energy used during physical activity — in a moderately active person 30—45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day , this component contributes 20 per cent of daily energy use. Thermic effect of food — is the energy you use to eat, digest and metabolise food. It contributes about per cent of your energy use.
Your BMR is largely determined by your total lean mass, especially muscle mass, because lean mass requires a lot of energy to maintain. Anything that reduces lean mass will reduce your BMR.
As your BMR accounts for so much of your total energy consumption, it is important to preserve or even increase your lean muscle mass through exercise when trying to lose weight. Maintaining lean muscle mass also helps reduce the chance of injury when training, and exercise increases your daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is continuous, but the rate varies throughout the day.
The rate of energy expenditure is usually lowest in the early morning. Energy used during physical activity During heavy physical exertion, the muscles may burn through as much as 3, kJ per hour. Energy used during exercise is the only form of energy expenditure that you have any control over. The energy expenditure of the muscles makes up only 20 per cent or so of total energy expenditure at rest, but during strenuous exercise, it may increase fold or more.
Estimating the energy spent during exercise is difficult, as the true value for each person will vary based on factors such as their weight, age, health and the intensity with which each activity is performed. Various activities and the approximate amounts of energy in kJ per kilogram per hour typically used during them are: BMR can drop by up to 15 per cent.
Loss of lean muscle tissue further reduces BMR age — metabolism slows with age due to loss of muscle tissue, but also due to hormonal and neurological changes growth — infants and children have higher energy demands per unit of body weight due to the energy demands of growth and the extra energy needed to maintain their body temperature gender — generally, men have faster metabolisms than women because they tend to be larger genetic predisposition — your metabolic rate may be partly decided by your genes hormonal and nervous controls — BMR is controlled by the nervous and hormonal systems.
Hormonal imbalances can influence how quickly or slowly the body burns kilojoules environmental temperature — if temperature is very low or very high, the body has to work harder to maintain its normal body temperature, which increases the BMR infection or illness — BMR increases because the body has to work harder to build new tissues and to create an immune response amount of physical activity — hard-working muscles need plenty of energy to burn.
Regular exercise increases muscle mass and teaches the body to burn kilojoules at a faster rate, even when at rest drugs — some drugs, like caffeine or nicotine, can increase the BMR dietary deficiencies — for example, a diet low in iodine reduces thyroid function and slows the metabolism.
Thermic effect of food Your BMR rises after you eat because you use energy to eat, digest and metabolise the food you have just eaten. The rise occurs soon after you start eating, and peaks two to three hours later. This rise in the BMR can range between two per cent and 30 per cent, depending on the size of the meal and the types of foods eaten. Different foods raise BMR by differing amounts. Metabolism and age-related weight gain Muscle tissue has a large appetite for kilojoules. The more muscle mass you have, the more kilojoules you will burn.
People tend to put on fat as they age, partly because the body slowly loses muscle. It is not clear whether muscle loss is a result of the ageing process or because many people are less active as they age. However, it probably has more to do with becoming less active, as research has shown that strength and resistance training can reduce or prevent this muscle loss.
If you are over 40 years of age, have a pre-existing medical condition or have not exercised in some time, see your doctor before embarking on any new fitness program. Hormonal disorders of metabolism Hormones help regulate the metabolism.
Some of the more common hormonal disorders are concerned with the thyroid. This gland secretes hormones to regulate many metabolic processes, including energy expenditure the rate at which kilojoules are burned.
Hypothyroidism underactive thyroid — the metabolism slows because the thyroid gland does not release enough hormones. Some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism include unusual weight gain, lethargy, depression and constipation Hyperthyroidism overactive thyroid — the gland releases larger quantities of hormones than necessary and speeds the metabolism. Some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include increased appetite, weight loss, nervousness and diarrhoea.
Genetic disorders of metabolism Our genes are the blueprints for the proteins in our body, and our proteins are responsible for the digestion and metabolism of our food. Sometimes, a faulty gene means we produce a protein that is ineffective in dealing with our food, resulting in a metabolic disorder. In most cases, genetic metabolic disorders can be managed under medical supervision, with close attention to diet.
The symptoms of genetic metabolic disorders can be very similar to those of other disorders and diseases, making it difficult to pinpoint the exact cause. See your doctor if you suspect you have a metabolic disorder. Some genetic disorders of metabolism include: Galactose is not found by itself in nature. It is produced when lactose is broken down by the digestive system into glucose and galactose. Sources of lactose include milk and milk products, such as yoghurt and cheese phenylketonuria PKU — the inability to convert the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine.
High levels of phenylalanine in the blood can cause brain damage. High-protein foods and foods containing the artificial sweetener aspartame must be avoided. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details. Excellent Good Average Fair Poor. Next Submit Now Cancel. Please note that we cannot answer personal medical queries.
If you are looking for health or medical advice we recommend that you: Enter your comments below optional. Did you find what you were looking for? Your feedback has been successfully sent. Due to quick cellular uptake of glucose, a person's blood sugar level falls of because of insulin. The, 'Post-absorptive,' state usually occurs during the late morning, afternoon hours, and overnight when a person hasn't eaten for four or more hours.
During the post-absorptive state the person's stomach and small intestine are empty and their metabolic requirements must be met from energy that has been stored. A person's BMR may be responsible for burning up to seventy-percent of their total calories they expend, although this figure varies according to various factors. Processes such as pumping blood, respiration, and maintaining body temperature burn calories.
A person's BMR is the biggest factor in determining their overall metabolic rate, as well as how many calories they need in order to maintain, lose, or gain weight. A person's BMR is determined by a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
Persons with a lower body fat percentage have a higher BMR. The greater a person's body surface area is, the higher their BMR is. People who are tall and thin have higher BMR's. For each increase of 0. Chemical reactions in a person's body occur more rapidly at higher temperatures.
A person with a fever experiences an increase in their BMR. Abrupt calorie-reduction or starvation may radically reduce a person's BMR by up to thirty-percent. A restrictive, low-calorie diet can cause a person's BMR to decrease by as much as twenty-percent.
Exercise helps to raise a person's BMR through building additional lean tissue, and influences their body weight by burning calories. Temperature outside of a person's body can also affect their BMR. Cold temperatures can cause an increase in a person's BMR, although short exposure to increased heat has little effect on the body's metabolism.
Prolonged exposure to heat may raise a person's BMR. Men tend to have a greater muscle mass and lower body fat percentage than women, and therefore have a higher BMR. Some persons are born with either slower or faster metabolisms. The more thyroxin a person's thyroid gland produces, the higher that person's BMR will be. If the person's thyroid gland produces too much thyroxin, a condition referred to as, 'thrytoxicosis,' their BMR may double.
Too little thyroxin production is referred to as, 'myxoedema,' and can cause the person's BMR to diminish to percent below normal. Adrenaline may also increase a person's BMR, but to a lesser extent.
The more a person weighs, the higher their BMR is. Atomic structure of adenosine triphosphate ATP , a central intermediate in energy metabolism. Interesting Metabolic Facts Contrary to common belief, a slow metabolism is rarely the cause of excess weight gain.
Anabolism is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules. Metabolism involves a vast array of chemical reactions, but most fall under a few basic types of reactions that involve the transfer of functional groups of atoms and their bonds within molecules.
Skinny individuals almost invariably have slower resting metabolisms; there is literally less of them to burn while at rest. Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy.
One easy way to ramp up your metabolism is to build muscle through lifting weights. Metabolism can vary greatly. A 5'2" woman weighing lbs. Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: Men, who naturally have a higher ratio of muscle to fat, tend to burn up what they eat faster, although a fat man may have a slower metabolism than a slim women with more muscle tissue.
Your metabolism is regulated by a small, butterfly-shaped gland known as the thyroid. Human Metabolism Map - Recon 2 allows biomedical researchers to study the human metabolic network with more precision than was ever previously possible. High Triglyceride Metabolism Study - Study shows why some people suffer from high levels of triglycerides.
Lose Weight and Keep it Off - A number of questions and answers on boosting metabolism rate to help lose weight for good.
The Best Ways to Boost Your Metabolism
Metabolism: Metabolism, the sum of chemical reactions that take place in living cells, providing energy for life processes and the synthesis of cellular material. Your body gets the energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. Get all the facts on metabolism in this article. Eating more protein can also reduce the drop in metabolism often associated with losing fat. This is because it reduces muscle loss, which is a.