A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces. Looking for online definition of Topical application in the Medical Dictionary? Topical application explanation free. What is Topical application? Meaning of. Surber C, Elsner P, Farage MA (eds): Topical Applications and the Mucosa. Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, , vol 40, pp I–VII (DOI/).
Creams have a significant risk of causing immunological sensitization due to preservatives. It has a high rate of acceptance by patients. There is a great variation in ingredients, composition, pH, and tolerance among generic brands.
Ointments have a water number that defines the maximum amount of water that it can contain. They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.
Ointments are used topically on a variety of body surfaces. These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye an eye ointment , chest , vulva , anus , and nose. An ointment may or may not be medicated. Ointments are usually very moisturizing, and good for dry skin. They have a low risk of sensitization due to having few ingredients beyond the base oil or fat, and low irritation risk.
There is typically little variability between brands of drugs. They are often disliked by patients due to greasiness. The vehicle of an ointment is known as the ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment. The different types of ointment bases are:.
The medicaments are dispersed in the base and are divided after penetrating the living cells of the skin. Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water-emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. They can also be derived from hydrocarbon fatty , absorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases. In this finely subdivided insoluble medicaments are evenly distributed by grinding with a small amount of the base followed by dilution with gradually increasing amounts of the base.
In this method the ingredients are melted together in descending order of their melting points and stirred to ensure homogeneity. Gels are thicker than liquids. Gels are often a semisolid emulsion sometimes using alcohol as a solvent for the active ingredient. Some gels liquefy at body temperature.
Gel tends to be cellulose cut with alcohol or acetone. Gels tend to be self-drying. Gels tend to have greatly variable ingredients between brands. Gels carry a significant risk of inducing hypersensitivity due to fragrances and preservatives.
Gel is useful for hairy areas and body folds. In applying gel one should avoid fissures in the skin, due to the stinging effect of the alcohol base. Gel enjoys a high rate of acceptance due to its cosmetic elegance.
Foam can be seen with topical steroid marketed for the scalp. Transdermal patches can be a very precise time released method of delivering a drug.
Cutting a patch in half might affect the dose delivered. The release of the active component from a transdermal delivery system patch may be controlled by diffusion through the adhesive which covers the whole patch, by diffusion through a membrane which may only have adhesive on the patch rim or drug release may be controlled by release from a polymer matrix.
Cutting a patch might cause rapid dehydration of the base of the medicine and affect the rate of diffusion. Powder  is either the pure drug by itself talcum powder , or is made of the drug mixed in a carrier such as corn starch or corn cob powder Zeosorb AF - miconazole powder. Can be used as an inhaled topical cocaine powder used in nasal surgery. Medication may be placed in a solid form.
Examples are deodorant, antiperspirants, astringents, and hemostatic agents. Some solids melt when they reach body temperature e. Certain contraceptive methods rely on sponge as a carrier of a liquid medicine. Lemon juice embedded in a sponge has been used as a primitive contraception in some cultures. Cordran tape is an example of a topical steroid applied under occlusion by tape.
This greatly increases the potency and absorption of the topical steroid and is used to treat inflammatory skin diseases. Some medications are applied as an ointment or gel, and reach the mucous membrane via vaporization. Examples are nasal topical decongestants and smelling salt. Paste combines three agents - oil, water, and powder. It is an ointment in which a powder is suspended.
A tincture is a skin preparation that has a high percentage of alcohol. It would normally be used as a drug vehicle if drying of the area is desired.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about topical medications. For other uses, see Topic disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. University of Maryland Medical System. Retrieved Sep 4, Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. The severity of each symptom was evaluated with score-values 0 to 4, before and after the day treatment, using High Performance Contact Thermography, Infrared Photoplethysmography and Laser-Doppler flowmetry.
Significant reduction in the hypothermic areas and the relative normalization of the skin temperature have been observed. The authors concluded that topical application of the escin complex improves skin and adipose tissue microcirculation, increases blood flow at the capillary level and decreases edema and stasis. A second group of 20 volunteers were similarly treated and evaluated for improvement in the symptoms of fibroblastic panniculopathy of the breast.
An improvement of the thermovascular maps, with the reduction of the cold areas and an increase in circulation of the smallest skin arteries was observed The escin gel reduced inflammation and tenderness in all cases over the recorded hour period. Tenderness measurements were recorded initially and after treatment using a calibrated tonometer that records the pressure at which there is the first perception of pain. Esculin, the coumarin in the extract is also useful for topical application.
The main pharmacological actions of esculin include capillary protection and the inhibition of enzymes such as hyaluronidase and collagenase. Esculin improved skin vasculature and is effective in the management of cellulitis.
Topically applied esculin increased the capillary density number of capillaries open to flow per surface unit and the structural integrity of the blood vessels.
Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. Jun;4(2) Topical applications of ozone and ozonated oils as anti-infective agents: an insight into the patent. Topical Application of Glycolipids from Isochrysis galbana Prevents Epidermal Hyperplasia in Mice. Rodríguez-Luna A(1), Talero E(2), Terencio. Topical applications of caffeine or (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibit carcinogenesis and selectively increase apoptosis in UVB-induced skin tumors in .